Presentation on theme: "BY: ABBY VANDEMARK, TIMOTHY BOLGER, JULIA MARCHUK, DANIEL HAMMER Commas."— Presentation transcript:
BY: ABBY VANDEMARK, TIMOTHY BOLGER, JULIA MARCHUK, DANIEL HAMMER Commas
Using Commas in Compound Sentences Compound sentences have two independent clauses that can be joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction. Ex.) Tim likes to play basketball, and Daniel likes to play hockey. Use the comma before the coordinating conjunction only when there are main clauses to connect.
Using Commas If the conjunction joins two words, phrases, or subordinate clauses, don’t use a comma. Ex.) New York and Georgia are popular states to visit. No comma Ex.) Daniel likes playing shuffleboard and watching wrestling. Ex.) We decided not to go because it was raining and because it was too expensive.
Avoiding Comma Splices A comma splice happens when 2 or more main clauses have been joined with only a comma between them. Avoid this by checking that all of your sentences are correctly joined. Ex.) Incorrect- Julia ate a taco yesterday, Tim had a salad. Ex.) Correct- Julia ate a taco yesterday, and Tim had a salad.
Commas in a Series Use commas to break apart three or more words, phrases, or clauses given in a series. A comma goes after each item in the series except the last one, and the conjunction and or or is added after the last comma. Ex.)We saw tortoises, cheetahs, tigers, and giraffes. Don’t use a comma to break apart words that are considered one thing. Ex.)The kids ate fish and chips, macaroni and cheese, and spaghetti and meatballs.
Using Commas between Adjectives Nouns are sometimes described with two or more adjectives. Use a comma to break apart adjectives of the same rank. Make sure you do not use a comma after the last adjective describing the noun. How to tell if the adjectives are of equal rank: 1. If and can be placed between the adjectives and the meaning does not change, the adjectives are of equal rank. 2. If you can switch the order of the adjectives and the meaning does not change, the adjectives are of equal rank.
Using Commas between Adjectives (continued) Ex.) The extravagant, lively party was held last night. Ex.) A litter of soft, cuddly, cute puppies live in that house. Don’t use a comma to break apart adjectives that require a specific order. If a sentence that doesn’t make sense results when adding and/or changing the order of the adjectives, do not use a comma. Ex.) The amazing soccer coach retired last year.
Commas after Introductory Words, Phrases, and Clauses Separate any introductory words, phrases, and adverb clauses at the beginning of a sentence with a comma. *Introductory Words: Ex.) Well, someone is in a bad mood. Ex.) Tim, go and make me a sandwich. *Phrase: Ex.) Before the game, you should fill up your water bottle. Ex.) To bake a cake, you must have patience. *Adverb Clause: Ex.) While you are on your way, stop by the grocery store.
Using Commas With Parenthetical Expressions A parenthetical expression is a word or phrase that is not required for the meaning of the sentence. They add extra information. Use a comma to separate a parenthetical expression from the rest of the sentence.
Using Commas with Parenthetical Expressions (continued) Types of parenthetical expressions: 1.Names of people being addressed Ex.) Go and clean the basement right now, Abby. 2.Conjunctive Adverbs Ex.) He is going to the beach; therefore, he brought sunscreen. 3.Contrasting Expressions Ex.) The information is your business, not mine. 4.Common Expressions Ex.) The arena, in my opinion, is the best tourist attraction in the city.
Using Commas with Nonessential Expressions To decide whether to set off a phrase or a clause with commas or not, decide whether the phrase or clause is essential or nonessential to the meaning of the sentence. Nonessential phrases or clauses can be left out of the sentence with out changing its meaning. Don’t set off essential expressions with commas.
Appositives and Appositive Phrases Appositives are only set off with commas when their meaning is not essential to the sentence Ex.) Essential- The boat the King Fish is going to the island. Ex.) King Fish, my family’s boat, is going to the island.
Participial Phrases Participial phrases are set off with commas only when there meaning is nonessential to the sentence. Ex.) Essential- The person making pretzels is my best friend. Ex.) Nonessential- My best friend, making pretzels, gave out free samples.
Adjectival Clauses Adjectival clauses are set off with commas only if they are nonessential to the sentence. Ex.) Essential- The people in the board meeting wanted a decision that would help their company. Ex.) Nonessential- The board meeting, which was a very important one, was a success for the company.
Commas with Dates and Geographical Names Use a comma between each part of a date; however, do not use a comma between a month that is followed by a day. Ex.) Daniel’s birthday is Wednesday, April 10 th. Ex.) March 15 th, 2013, was Abby’s fourteenth birthday. If a sentence just has the month and the year, do not add a comma. Ex.) The camp this year will occur in June 2013 on an unknown date. Use a comma between a city and the state the city is located in. There should also be a comma after the state unless it ends the sentence. Ex.) My friend lives in Chicago, Illinois. Ex.) I would like to visit Austin, Texas, this summer.
Commas with Numbers Commas are used when writing out in numerals. Commas are added between every third digit from the right in large numbers. Ex.) The answer to that problem is 5,892. Ex.) She said the population was 30,674,291. Commas are also used in a series of three or more numbers just like a series of words. Ex.) The workbook pages are 39, 40, and 42. Ex.) Did problems 2, 5, or 11 give you trouble?
Commas with Numbers (continued) Do not use commas in between numbers in phone numbers, large page numbers, years, ZIP codes, house numbers, or serial numbers. Phone: (231) 342-7251 Page: on page 2342 Year: class of 1985 ZIP: 30075 House: 410 Oak Tree Path Serial: 341 54 7328
Using Commas with Addresses and in Letters Commas are used in addresses, salutations in friendly letters, and closings in letters Follow each item in an address made up of two or more parts with a comma Ex.) Paul Prescott 42 Wallaby Way, Atlanta, Georgia 30075 Not as many commas are needed when an address is written in a letter or on an envelope Ex.) Sammy Smith 4045 Rockingham Drive Roswell, Georgia 30075
Using Commas with Addresses and in Letters (continued) Use a comma after the salutation or greeting in a personal letter and after the closing in all letters. Ex.) Salutation- Dear Aunt Suzy, Dear Joe, Ex.) Closing- Sincerely, From, Love,
Commas with Direct Quotations Use a comma to separate a direct quotation from the rest of a sentence. Ex.) Tim said, “Make me some macaroni necklaces.” Ex.) “No,” responded Danielle, “he is afraid of giant dictionaries.”