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Natalie Czech Charlie Borak Rita Skolasinski

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Presentation on theme: "Natalie Czech Charlie Borak Rita Skolasinski"— Presentation transcript:

1 Natalie Czech Charlie Borak Rita Skolasinski
Reading Instruction Natalie Czech Charlie Borak Rita Skolasinski

2 The Big Five Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Principal Fluency with Text
Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Principal Fluency with Text Vocabulary Comprehension

3 Phonemic Awareness Sound Isolation: Example – The first sound in sun is /ssss/. Give multiple words that start with m: mountain, mop, Miranda Blending: Example – /fff/ - /uuu/ - /nnn/ is fun. Using short words and pictures is a great help. Segmenting: Example – The sounds in fun are /fff/ - /uuu/ - /nnn/. The only difference between blending and segmenting is weather children can produce or hear a segmented word, as blending is much easier.

4 Phonemic Awareness Activity

5 Alphabetic Principal Letter-Sound Correspondence: Example – (Teacher points to letter m on board). "The sound of this letter is /mmm/. Tell me the sound of this letter." –Use consistent and brief wording Sounding Out Words: Example: (Teacher points to the word map on the board, touches under each sound as the students sound it out, and slashes finger under the word as students say it fast.) "Sound it out." (/mmm aaa p/) "Say it fast." (map) –start by having students sound letters/words out in their heads, then as a class produce the word orally

6 Alphabetic Principal Cont.
Reading Connected Text: Once students have mastered CVC (mom) and VC (at) words, short controlled sentences (mom is at home) should be introduced. Prompts and procedures should be used for this, as it is sometimes difficult for students to move quickly from lists of words to passages.

7 CVC Chart

8 Alphabetic Principal Activity

9 Fluency with Text Letter-Sound Fluency: Example: Given a set of letters, the student can produce the associated sound within one second. Target goal = 50 letter sounds per minute by mid first grade Irregular Word Fluency: Example: Given a set of irregular words in a set or in a passage, can identify words in 1 second or less. Oral Reading Fluency: Example: By the end of grade 2, students should read words per minute fluently.


11 Fluency with Text Activity

12 Vocabulary 1. Provide students with skills/opportunities to learn words independently Vocabulary Literature- Contextual Analysis: A strategy readers use to infer or predict a word from the context in which it appears. Morphemic Analysis: A strategy in which the meanings of words can be determined or inferred by examining their meaningful parts (i.e., prefixes, suffixes, roots, etc.) Root Ex. Cap (take, seize): capture, captivate, capacity… Storybook Literature - oral language experiences (listening to books

13 Vocabulary Cont. 2. Teach students the meanings of specific words Select words that are important for text comprehension and choose words that functionally important (words that students will encounter often) Use both context and definitions to teach words Encourage “deep” processing of word meanings (i.e., synonym, antonym, make up a new sentence with a word, group words, relate definitions to personal experiences)

14 Vocabulary Cont. 3. Nurture a love and appreciation of words and their use Vocabulary Literature – "Word Awareness" - Good vocabulary teaching makes students excited about words and leads them to attend more closely to them (ex. Science and Math) Storybook Literature - It is important to choose stories that attract and hold children's attention.

15 Vocabulary Activity

16 Comprehension Before Reading -
Set comprehension objectives (Identify the main character and setting) Preteach difficult to read words Preview text and prime background knowledge (predict after reading a short passage, think about what you know and what you want to learn from story/topic – KWL charts) Chunk text into manageable segments (appropriate stopping points for asking questions, vocab review, point out text structure elements, summarize main ideas)

17 Comprehension Cont. During Reading –
Identify text structure elements (characters, settings, problems/solutions, theme, include narrative and informational books) infer Answer literal, inferential, and evaluative questions (factual, assumed/deduced, opinion based) Retell stories or main ideas of informational text (summarize, retell using illustrations)

18 Comprehension Cont. After Reading –
Strategic Integration (use read text to teach new concepts, increase difficulty of questions asked, go from retelling paragraphs to whole chapters orally and written) Judicious Review (prepare numerous activates for practice of newly learned concepts, teach structure maps for planning writing assignments) Formal and Informal Assessment (discussions/conversations about text that includes open-ended more complex questions, observe as students read and respond, monitor retelling of stories for accuracy and completeness of responses.

19 Comprehension Activity

20 Extras from Chapter 8

21 Phonics Instruction (pg 285)
From the National Reading Panel – six phonics instructional approaches: Analogy Based Phonics – (jump = stump) Analytic Phonics – (build = guild) Embedded Phonics Phonics though Spelling Onset-rime phonics instruction Synthetic Phonics Analogy Based Phonics – teaches students to decode unfamiliar words by analogy to word families they know Analytic Phonics – teaches students to analyze letter-sound relationships in known words to help decode unfamiliar words (thinking of the word build to decode the word guild) Embedded Phonics – teaches students letter – sound relationships during the reading of text because readers encounter radom letter sound relationships in their reading, however this approach is not systematic or explicit Phonics though Spelling – teaches students to segment words into phonemes and to write letters for those phonemes Onset-rime phonics instruction – teaches students to identify the sound of the letters before the first vowel (onset) in a one syllable word and the sound of the vowel rime) in the remaining part of the word Synthetic Phonics – teaches students explicitly to convert letters into sounds, and then blend them to pronounce recognizable words

22 Fluency/Stages of Reading Devlopment (pg 287)
Prereading (Emergent Literacy) – Kindergarten Decoding – Grades 1-2 Confirmation of Fluency – Grade 3 Reading to Learn – Grades 4-8 Reading for Multiple Viewpoints – Grades 9-12 Reading to Construct New Knowledge Prereading - focus is on pictures, color, and shapes in determining a name for printed material or icons Decoding – sounding out words, leaning numerous consonants and vowels, and begin to divide and blend words Confirmation of Fluency - reader breaks the alphabetic code, reading speed increases dramatically, and site vocab substantially increases Reading to Learn - learns to think and construct knowledge via words, silent reading picks up Reading for Multiple Viewpoints – learns to construct knowledge via words Reading to Construct New Knowledge – learner extends all previous knowledge learned in stages 1-5

23 Vocabulary Instruction (pg 288)
Oral Vocabulary vs. Reading Vocabulary Oral: auditory processing of spoken words Listening Vocabulary Speaking Vocabulary Reading: visual processing of printed words Reading Vocabulary Writing Vocabulary Listening: refers to spoken words an individual knows and understands when the person hears them (essential for engaging in oral communication) Speaking: refers to the words a person uses when communicating through speech Reading: focuses on understanding print and includes the words a person reads and understands Writing: refers to the words a person uses when writing Combing these four elements is essential to a full understanding of vocabulary, just reading words is not enough for good instruction Reading aloud, holding conversations about reading materials or the story in the book, listening to others read and speak…



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