2 The Big Five Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Principal Fluency with Text Phonemic AwarenessAlphabetic PrincipalFluency with TextVocabularyComprehension
3 Phonemic AwarenessSound Isolation: Example – The first sound in sun is /ssss/. Give multiple words that start with m: mountain, mop, MirandaBlending: Example – /fff/ - /uuu/ - /nnn/ is fun. Using short words and pictures is a great help.Segmenting: Example – The sounds in fun are /fff/ - /uuu/ - /nnn/. The only difference between blending and segmenting is weather children can produce or hear a segmented word, as blending is much easier.
5 Alphabetic PrincipalLetter-Sound Correspondence: Example – (Teacher points to letter m on board). "The sound of this letter is /mmm/. Tell me the sound of this letter." –Use consistent and brief wordingSounding Out Words: Example: (Teacher points to the word map on the board, touches under each sound as the students sound it out, and slashes finger under the word as students say it fast.) "Sound it out." (/mmm aaa p/) "Say it fast." (map) –start by having students sound letters/words out in their heads, then as a class produce the word orally
6 Alphabetic Principal Cont. Reading Connected Text:Once students have mastered CVC (mom) and VC (at) words, short controlled sentences (mom is at home) should be introduced. Prompts and procedures should be used for this, as it is sometimes difficult for students to move quickly from lists of words to passages.
9 Fluency with TextLetter-Sound Fluency: Example: Given a set of letters, the student can produce the associated sound within one second. Target goal = 50 letter sounds per minute by mid first gradeIrregular Word Fluency: Example: Given a set of irregular words in a set or in a passage, can identify words in 1 second or less.Oral Reading Fluency: Example: By the end of grade 2, students should read words per minute fluently.
12 Vocabulary1. Provide students with skills/opportunities to learn words independentlyVocabulary Literature-Contextual Analysis: A strategy readers use to infer or predict a word from the context in which it appears.Morphemic Analysis: A strategy in which the meanings of words can be determined or inferred by examining their meaningful parts (i.e., prefixes, suffixes, roots, etc.) Root Ex. Cap (take, seize): capture, captivate, capacity…Storybook Literature - oral language experiences (listening to books
13 Vocabulary Cont.2. Teach students the meanings of specific words Select words that are important for text comprehension and choose words that functionally important (words that students will encounter often) Use both context and definitions to teach words Encourage “deep” processing of word meanings (i.e., synonym, antonym, make up a new sentence with a word, group words, relate definitions to personal experiences)
14 Vocabulary Cont.3. Nurture a love and appreciation of words and their useVocabulary Literature –"Word Awareness" - Good vocabulary teaching makes students excited about words and leads them to attend more closely to them (ex. Science and Math)Storybook Literature -It is important to choose stories that attract and hold children's attention.
16 Comprehension Before Reading - Set comprehension objectives (Identify the main character and setting)Preteach difficult to read wordsPreview text and prime background knowledge (predict after reading a short passage, think about what you know and what you want to learn from story/topic – KWL charts)Chunk text into manageable segments (appropriate stopping points for asking questions, vocab review, point out text structure elements, summarize main ideas)
17 Comprehension Cont. During Reading – Identify text structure elements (characters, settings, problems/solutions, theme, include narrative and informational books) inferAnswer literal, inferential, and evaluative questions (factual, assumed/deduced, opinion based)Retell stories or main ideas of informational text (summarize, retell using illustrations)
18 Comprehension Cont. After Reading – Strategic Integration (use read text to teach new concepts, increase difficulty of questions asked, go from retelling paragraphs to whole chapters orally and written)Judicious Review (prepare numerous activates for practice of newly learned concepts, teach structure maps for planning writing assignments)Formal and Informal Assessment (discussions/conversations about text that includes open-ended more complex questions, observe as students read and respond, monitor retelling of stories for accuracy and completeness of responses.
21 Phonics Instruction (pg 285) From the National Reading Panel – six phonics instructional approaches:Analogy Based Phonics – (jump = stump)Analytic Phonics – (build = guild)Embedded PhonicsPhonics though SpellingOnset-rime phonics instructionSynthetic PhonicsAnalogy Based Phonics – teaches students to decode unfamiliar words by analogy to word families they knowAnalytic Phonics – teaches students to analyze letter-sound relationships in known words to help decode unfamiliar words (thinking of the word build to decode the word guild)Embedded Phonics – teaches students letter – sound relationships during the reading of text because readers encounter radom letter sound relationships in their reading, however this approach is not systematic or explicitPhonics though Spelling – teaches students to segment words into phonemes and to write letters for those phonemesOnset-rime phonics instruction – teaches students to identify the sound of the letters before the first vowel (onset) in a one syllable word and the sound of the vowel rime) in the remaining part of the wordSynthetic Phonics – teaches students explicitly to convert letters into sounds, and then blend them to pronounce recognizable words
22 Fluency/Stages of Reading Devlopment (pg 287) Prereading (Emergent Literacy) – KindergartenDecoding – Grades 1-2Confirmation of Fluency – Grade 3Reading to Learn – Grades 4-8Reading for Multiple Viewpoints – Grades 9-12Reading to Construct New KnowledgePrereading - focus is on pictures, color, and shapes in determining a name for printed material or iconsDecoding – sounding out words, leaning numerous consonants and vowels, and begin to divide and blend wordsConfirmation of Fluency - reader breaks the alphabetic code, reading speed increases dramatically, and site vocab substantially increasesReading to Learn - learns to think and construct knowledge via words, silent reading picks upReading for Multiple Viewpoints – learns to construct knowledge via wordsReading to Construct New Knowledge – learner extends all previous knowledge learned in stages 1-5
23 Vocabulary Instruction (pg 288) Oral Vocabulary vs. Reading VocabularyOral: auditory processing of spoken wordsListening VocabularySpeaking VocabularyReading: visual processing of printed wordsReading VocabularyWriting VocabularyListening: refers to spoken words an individual knows and understands when the person hears them (essential for engaging in oral communication)Speaking: refers to the words a person uses when communicating through speechReading: focuses on understanding print and includes the words a person reads and understandsWriting: refers to the words a person uses when writingCombing these four elements is essential to a full understanding of vocabulary, just reading words is not enough for good instructionReading aloud, holding conversations about reading materials or the story in the book, listening to others read and speak…