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The Baroque Period Baroque architecture: try/Baroque_Architecture.

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1 The Baroque Period Baroque architecture: try/Baroque_Architecture

2 Baroque orchestral music  Music composed between 1600 (first operas) and 1750 (death of J.S. Bach)  Barocca (Portugese) – Irregular shaped pearl in elaborate jewellery  Ornamental and elaborate music, often Polyphonic or Contrapuntal textures (for example, And the Glory of the Lord)  Orchestra started to take shape  Violins replaced lutes and flutes replaced recorders  Baroque orchestra: based on strings  Woodwind, brass & percussion varied

3 Baroque orchestral music Harpsichord was the most popular keyboard instrument (plucked). The dynamic cannot change! The Continuo consisted of a keyboard instrument (harpsichord or organ) alongside a cello or bassoon and was used to play the bass line and fill in the harmonies Woodwind and percussion used less often Brass instruments had no valves - limited to notes of the harmonic series Natural trumpets and Natural horns were used. Natural trumpet music could be incredibly high… harmonic series Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 2Brandenburg Concerto No. 2

4 Baroque orchestral music Famous Baroque composers: Monteverdi (1567 – 1643) Scarlatti (1685 – 1757) Vivaldi (1678 – 1741) Corelli (1653 – 1713) Purcell (c. 1659 – 1695) Couperin (1668 – 1733) Rameau (1683 – 1764) Lully (1632 – 1687) J.S. Bach (1685 – 1750) Handel (1685 – 1759) Homework: Find one piece of music by any one of these composers and be prepared to talk about it from the point of view of the Baroque era and the five Areas of Study !

5 Baroque genres: The Suite The Suite is a collection of dances The dances were usually in the same key and in binary form (2 sections), with each section repeated Often, two dances were put together. An example is the Minuet and Trio (how many beats per bar?) The minuet would then be repeated at the end, putting the whole piece in ternary form Handel’s Music for the Royal Fireworks contains two minuets and is played on baroque instruments in this recordingMusic for the Royal Fireworks What is the tonality of the Minuet? And the Trio? Here is a clip showing an orchestra of baroque instrumentsorchestra of baroque instruments

6 Baroque genres: The Concerto An instrumental composition that features a soloist (or small group of soloists) contrasted against a larger group of accompanying instruments Dynamics and Timbre could be contrasted Two types: solo concerto and concerto grosso Bach wrote 6 Brandenburg Concertos. The scores can be found herehere Concerto grosso: soloists are called the concertino accompanists are called the ripieno When the instruments play together it is called a tutti When the soloists play, they play episodes When a piece in a minor key ends in a major key, it is called a Tierce de Picardie

7 More baroque listening Pachelbel’s Canon This features a Ground Bass (a repeated bass line over which different melodies are added, producing a contrapuntal texture )Canon Vivaldi’s Spring from ‘The Four Seasons’ opens with a solo violin playing a duet with another violin.Spring

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