2 Historical FactsGalileo & Newton were discovering new ways to explain the universeIn music, art, architecture, and fashion, fancy decoration & ornamentation became the ruleMen & Women wore wigs and coats with laceComposers continued to be employeed by the church & wealthy- the patronage systemPatrons paid for the composer’s work, so they decided what they wrote- limiting creative freedomImportant Composers:Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frederic Handel, Johann Pachelbel, Georg Phillip Telemann, Henry Purcell and Antonio Vivaldi.
3 Baroque Characterisitics FormDances were popular during this period as well as preludes, fugues, suites, toccatas and theme and variations. Binary ( 2 beat) and ternary ( 3 beat) forms were used frequently.HarmonyTwo or more melodies played at the same time created a musical texture called counterpoint. There were frequent harmonic changes. Tonality was based on major and minor keys.
4 Baroque Characteristics, Cont’d Keyboard instrumentsclavichord, harpsichord, and organRhythmEmphasis was on strong beats, upbeats and fast-changing rhythmic motion. Eighths, 16ths and triplets were frequently used.Eighth note = ½ beat16th note = ¼ beatTriplet divides the beat in 3StyleFaster notes were normally played legato- connected & smoothSlower notes were normally played nonlegato.- seperatedOrnaments were used frequently
5 Trends in Music Complex polyphonic music Accompanying chords Dynamics & tempo markingsDynamics- volumeTempo- speedImprovisationUsed music to express emotions- joy & anger
6 Vocal Baroque MusicOpera- combined music, acting, scenery, costumes, and propsActors and actresses sing the libretto (script)Opera Seria- Serious OperaOpera Buffa- Funny OperaFirst Opera- “Orfeo” by Claudio MonteverdiCantata- series of arias and recitatives, not staged or acted
7 Instrumental Baroque Music Instruments- flute, oboe, bassoon, trombone, valveless trumpets and horns, harpsichord, organ, timpaniMusic written for instruments contained several sections called movementsConcertofeatured one soloist or a group of soloistsusually contained three movements (fast-slow-fast).Antonio Vivaldi's Four Seasons
8 Composers Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Dietrich Buxtehude Arcangelo Corelli ( )Francois Couperin ( )Girolamo FrescobaldiGeorge Frideric Handel ( )Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre ( )Jean-Baptiste LullyClaudio Monteverdi ( )Jacopo PeriGeorg Phillip TelemannHenry Purcell ( )Jean-Philippe Rameau ( )Alessandro ScarlattiHeinrich Schutz ( )Antonio Vivaldi ( )