2 Additional Reading Resources IFSTAChapter 13 – Fire StreamsChapter 2 – Fire BehaviourChapter 5 – Portable Fire ExtinguishersIn the context of Fire Suppression Techniques
3 Overview Fire Control. Roles & Coordination of Fire Crews. Tactics. Fire Attack Strategies.Suppressing Class A Structural Fires.Safety.
4 Overview Master Streams. Review extinguishing agents. Class B fire suppression.Bulk transport vehicle / passenger vehicle fires.Class C fire suppression.Class D fire suppression.
5 Fire Control Fire control is the 2nd tactical priority. Fire control involves activities required to confine the fire, stop its forward progress and bring it under control.Benchmark – “Under control.”Support activities that assist in fire control: Ventilation, forcible entry, provision of access, fire streams, etc.Discuss ventilation re: backdraft and flashover.
6 Fire Control - Offensive an aggressive well placed interior attack with related support activities to quickly bring the fire under control.
7 Fire Control - Defensive an exterior attack directed to first reduce fire spread and protect exposures, then bring the fire under control.Exterior & interior cannot be combined simultaneously.Marginal situations. HOSELINE & FIRE STREAM SELECTION (table 14.1 page 526)
11 What factor should be considered when choosing an Offensive vs What factor should be considered when choosing an Offensive vs. Defensive Strategy?Exterior & interior cannot be combined simultaneously.Marginal situations. HOSELINE & FIRE STREAM SELECTION (table 14.1 page 526)
12 OFFENSIVE AND DEFENSIVE ATTACKS CAN NOT TAKE PLACE SIMULATNEOUSLY! Exterior & interior cannot be combined simultaneously.Marginal situations. HOSELINE & FIRE STREAM SELECTION (table 14.1 page 526)
13 “MARGINAL” An INITIAL attack strategy ONLY Serious working fire Limited opportunity for offensive attackWhile offensive attack is in progress – hose lines are put in place to switch to a defensive attackWhen would you use this strategy?
21 Hose line selection Consider: Fire progress Fire load – potential Flow requiredReach requiredManpower availableWater available
22 Hose line selection See chart page 536 table 14.1 38 mm lpm (360)8-15 m1 or 245 mmlpm265 mmlpm (900 lpm)15-30 m2–4 (1)Master Streamlpm (2000 lpm)30-60 m1
23 Fire Company Roles & Tactics Remember Incident Management system at all timeIMS is a fluid, dynamic systemAssigned roles can change based on situationAs a crew (pair) complete your assigned task and report when you are doneNo freelancing EVER!SAFETY!
24 Fire Company Roles & Tactics First-in PumperAssumes commandSize up – tactical prioritiesDevelops an attack plan (offensive/defensive/marginal strategy)Establishes a water supplyProvides hose lines for fire control
25 Fire Company Roles & Tactics First in hand linesSupport rescue (before or after)Between the victims & the fireProtect escape routes (stairs!)Cut off fire (interior exposures)Control hallways & stairsInitiate extinguishment from unburned side – when?
26 Fire Company Roles & Tactics Second PumperAssist with water supplyCrews back up initial linesProtects secondary means of egressPrevent fire extensionProtects exposuresAssists with extinguishmentsAerialAssist with search & rescueVentilation (PPV, vertical, etc.)Ladder buildingProvide elevated master streams (defensive)Salvage & overhaulSTRESS IMPORTANCE OF VENTILATION
27 Fire Company Roles & Tactics RescueForcible entry (specialized equip)Search & rescueAssist with fire attack when requiredVentilationSalvage & overhaulLightingR.I.T. teamsDistrict ChiefAssumes commandCoordinates all fire ground activitiesAssigns crews tasksEvaluates strategy (and tactics?)Manages resourcesLiaison with other agencies & media
28 Safety PrecautionsFull PPE & SCBA, hose line, radio, forcible entry tool.IMS – appropriate strategy, tactics and tasks.Work in pairs or crews.Entry control.Back up crews and lines.R.I.T. crews.Structural conditions.Fire conditions.(backdraft, flashover, location)Building hazards (contents, electrical, construction)Do not let fire cut you off.
30 Fire Attack MethodsEffective fire control is achieved by applying the right amount of water (or other medium), in the right form, in the right place.
31 Fire Attack MethodsPrior to entering a structure, set the nozzle pattern, and bleed off air.Wait at doorway for order to advance.Stay to one side of any doors, nobody should block doorway, stay low.Fire crew should be between the fire & the exit.
33 Fire Attack Methods Direct Attack Indirect Attack Combination Attack Not to be confused with an attack strategy (offensive/defensive/marginal)
34 Fire Attack Methods - Direct Narrow or straight stream applied directly to the seat of the burning materials.Water is applied in short bursts. (5-10secs)This will darken down the fire, and will not upset the thermal layering.
35 Class A Structural Fire Direct Attack Solid / straight stream.Short bursts at base of fire.Close position.
36 Fire Attack Methods - Indirect Fire stream distributed throughout the heated upper portion of a room with a sweeping motion.Used when crews are unable to enter the area due to intense fire conditions.(doorway or window)
37 Fire Attack Methods - Indirect Generates steam production, ventilate area and advance line to extinguish hot spots with direct attack.DISTURBS THE THERMAL LAYERINGRISK OF BURNS TO FIREFIGHTING TEAMS
38 Class A Structural Fire Indirect Attack Solid / straight / narrow fog pattern.Stream directed at ceiling.Sweeping motion.
39 Fire Attack Methods - Combination A narrow or straight fog pattern distributed throughout the fire area by a rapid clockwise rotating motion.This method quickly controls the fire and reduces the chance of flashover.Disrupts the thermal balance, limiting visibility.
40 Class A Structural Fire Combination Attack Solid / straight / narrow fog.Stream directed at ceiling, walls and burning materials in T, Z or O pattern.
47 Master Streams Defensive operations: (large fire beyond the control of handlines, can be used in an area that is unsafe for personnel)Direct fire attackExposure protectionCooling for flammable gas/liquid storage tanksElevated master streams – advantage of extra reach!SURROUND & DROWN!!!!