Presentation on theme: "Officers Training Officers Strategy & Tactics and Rapid Entry Search."— Presentation transcript:
Officers Training Officers Strategy & Tactics and Rapid Entry Search
Student Performance Objectives Today’s presentation will provide the attendee with an introduction to several concepts that should enhance emergency scene performance on the fireground.
Overview Command Sequence Strategy Tactics Tasks Reading Smoke Handling the MAYDAY Photo by Bob Bartosz
We will risk a life to save a life; we will use considerable caution to protect savable property; we will not risk a life to save what is already lost.
Command Sequence Step by step decision making process of incident management Performing size – up –(The Thinking Phase) Determining strategy & selecting tactics –(The Planning Phase) Implementing the action plan –(The Action Phase)
Strategy Loosely defined as “what has to be done to solve the problem” »Broad Goals »Overall plan to control the operation
Three Strategies Offensive Defensive Transitional
Defensive – fight the fire with minimum risk Risk too great for benefit Insufficient resources Maximize safety Stay out of collapse zone No entry made Contain fire in area of present involvement Protect exposures Loss of building probable Master stream operation
Transitional - switching from one operational mode to the other Defensive to Offensive –No entry made until additional resources arrive –Begin interior attack Offensive to Defensive –Confine fire until rescue can be completed –Protect exposures
National Fire Academy Incident Priorities PRIORITY Life Safety Incident Stabilization Property Conservation BENCHMARK All Clear Under Control Loss Stopped
Lloyd Layman’s Strategies R-E-C-E-O -VS- Rescue Exposures Confinement Extinguishment Overhaul Ventilation-Salvage Photo by Carlos Alfaro
Tactics The execution of the Strategic Plan Tactics deals specifically with selecting, placing, and operating: PERSONNEL, HOSELINES, LADDERS TOOLS & EQUIPMENT
Engine Company Tactics NOZZLE SELECTION HANDLINE SELECTION HANDLINE PLACEMENT TACTICAL HOSE MANAGEMENT Photo by Carlos Alfaro
Principal role of the engine company is to: Locate, Confine, and Extinguish the fire. Photo by Carlos Alfaro
Select the appropriate nozzle and handline based on: Required fire flow (L x W/3) Staffing Attack Mode (Offensive, Defensive, Transitional)
Handline Selection 1 3/4” minimum for interior fire attack. Rules of thumb: –Up to three rooms involved, 1 3/4”. –Three or more rooms involved, 2.5” or larger. –Commercial occupancy 2.5” or larger. –High rise, 1 3/4” w/solid stream or 2” +. –Solid Stream for “Black Fire”
Handline Placement Handlines are placed to accomplish one of three goals: Protect occupants Protect means of egress Attack and extinguish fire, including extension
3-Line Concept 1 st line – Attack 2 nd line – Back up / Exposures (Int. or Ext.) 3 rd line – Back up/Extension Prevention
Tactical Hose Management Fully stretch drag loads before flaking shoulder loads. Un-needed hose should not be stretched into a building. Additional hose should be flaked outside of the entrance.
Special Service Tactics L adders O verhaul V entilation E ntry R escue S alvage U tilities Photo by Carlos Alfaro
Ladders & Ventilation “Prepare” the building for entry by engine company and search teams.
Ladder Selection & Placement Quick Select Method Choose the ladder that has the same first digit as the floor you are trying to reach. (Example: Need to reach a 2 nd story window, choose a 2 4 or 2 8’ ladder. Need to reach the roof of a 3 story building, choose a 3 5’ ladder.)
Ventilation Vent for two reasons: fire life (Battalion Chief John Norman, FDNY)
Venting for life begins as soon as a life hazard is realized. May intensify the fire. Venting for fire is delayed until attack teams and resources are in place.
Search Move rapidly Close interior doors Stay in contact with reference Search with a partner Use tools and lights Photo by Carlos Alfaro
Do not compromise the protective “membrane” of the compartment that surrounds you while you are conducting search operations.
Requires a commitment of resources to areas most likely to contain victims. a. bedrooms b.interior travel routes (hallways & stairs) c. outside the structure
Narrowing the Search Where were victims were last seen? Cries for help heard? Is the structure occupied or not? Photo by Morningside VFD
Rapid-Entry-Search (RES) Advantage - search personnel enter structure from safe atmosphere (outside), search small areas (sometimes single rooms), then exit. Disadvantage - often conducted ahead of hoseline on “fire” side of structure. If PPV goes in service, entry point can become exhaust port for PPV. (Must coordinate)
Must be coordinated with Incident Commander. RES should only be used when probability of finding victim is high!
Tasks Labor intensive activities that work to satisfy either: Layman’s “RECEO(SV)” or NFA’s “LIPs” Life Safety, Incident Stabilization, Property conservation (Strategies)
Specific activities that firefighters engage in to satisfy tactics
Advancing handlines Throwing ladders Operating nozzles Operating pumps Using tools and appliances
Reading Smoke Familiarize yourself with The Art Of Reading Smoke
Handling the MAYDAY! Standardized Survival Actions of a Lost/Disoriented Firefighter
1.STAY CALM! Conserve your air supply. 2.Stay with your partner (or crew). 3.Initiate a “MAYDAY” provide CANA C – Conditions A – Actions N – Needs A – Air
4.Activate PASS 5.Monitor radio/Update Turn off PASS to communicate! Reactivate PASS after! 6.Use flashlight to signal 7.Use tools or debris to alert rescuers
8.Attempt to locate an exit/area of refuge Move toward visible light Listen for audible sounds Search walls for windows/doors Search for a hoseline (read couplings) Attempt to locate a lifeline
9.Go down steps unless in a basement or sub-floor. 10.Assume defensive posture If lying down, do not muffle your pass alarm Protect facepiece with gloved hands
Handling the MAYDAY! Standardized Actions of a Rapid Intervention Team in Locating and Removing a Lost/Disoriented Firefighter
Pre-plan structure and fire conditions upon arrival –Prolonged burn time/heavy fire conditions –Smoke/water showing through walls –Inadequate ventilation (potential for rapid fire development) –Sagging floors, bulging walls, localized interior collapse –2 or more floors involved –Unprotected steel
Fireground Preparations 1.Proactive ladders (Always place more ladders than you think you will need) 2.*Four-side scene lighting/Entry point lighting 3.Back-up/Safety Lines 4.Proactive softening of the structure
Response to the MAYDAY 1.Monitor Radio communications 2.RIT is not rapid (Phoenix/Seattle trials) 3.Consider personal limitations Don’t become a victim yourself Officers know your people!
4.Personnel Discipline Those closest may assist Those not closest need to get out of the way! Fire Attack must continue 5.Look for signals Activated PASS Alarm flashlight beams banging on walls and floors
6.*Check exterior walls and corners* 7.RIT Team Concept “AWARE” A ir W ater A R adio E xtrication plan
Three or more teams RIT #1 – Recon & Search Locate downed/lost member Establish traceable means of access to victim Determine additional needs RIT #2 – Stabilization/Removal Provide equipment & personnel requested Begin extrication process
RIT #3 – Support Team –Provide external support –Provide personnel to support Photo by Morningside VFD
The successful rescue of a downed firefighter is dependent upon a well- defined rescue action plan that is continually updated.
Wrap Up Be Vigilant, Stay Focused. Think before you act. Use all of your resources. Conduct a “gross decon” after exiting and prior to removing air source.