5 Basic Fire Ground Strategy and Tactics (Fire Attack)Strategy: The Goal, what has to be doneTactic: the objective,how will it be doneTask: the assigned activity, who will do itStrategy = The Incident CommanderTactic: The Operations/Division OfficerTask:: The Firefighters, perform the functions
6 Command Sequence Think! Plan! Act! Think:: Size Up, Pre-Fire Plan, and GoalPlan: Strategy and TacticsAct: ImplementationIncident CommandertoOperationsFirefighter/Groups
7 Primary Factors to Determine Strategy RescueExposuresConfinementExtinguishmentOverhaulVentilationSalvage(FEMA)RescueEvacuationVentilationAttackSalvage(Fire Attack)
8 Questions To Ask What do I Have? What am I doing What do I need? Where is it going?How do I control it?Who is in command?
9 Strategic Concepts In Firefighting (McAniff) OFFENSIVE: Direct attack at seat of fire. Normally at Incipient Stage, this solves all problems.OFFENSIVE/DEFENSIVE: An attack on the main body of fire, while taking measures to control extension.DEFENSIVE/OFFENSIVE: A holding action,it keeps fire in reasonable bounds while more forces are called.DEFENSIVE: Surround and Drown, protect the exposures.INDIRECT: A Contained/Confined smoldering fire, where use of steam expansion is taken advantage of and there is no rescue.
10 General Principles of Firefighting (Norman) Lacking sufficient manpower,rescue takes precedence.Remove those in greatest danger first!With insufficient manpower to perform needed tasks, perform those that protect the most first.When sufficient manpower is available coordinate both rescue and fire attack.If there are no threats to occupants or no occupants, Firefighters should no be unduly endangered.
11 Engine Company Operations Aggressive attacks are a necessity.Begin suppression as soon as possible.Choose the proper operating modeOFFENSIVEDEFENSIVEINDIRECT
12 Basic Fire Ground Strategy and Tactics When a human life is at stake an interior attack is mandated.1st hose line to worst case before worrying about other hose lines.If attack stalled increase ventilation or water flow, or both. If not working CHANGE TACTICS!When effective offensive attack is not possible or has not succeeded in 20 minutes, prepare defensive positionsWhen forced to defensive mode consider the possible effect of total structure involvement.
13 LOCATE CONFINE EXTINGUISH “LET CIRCUMSTANCES DICTATE PROCEDURES…ERR ON THE SIDE OF SAFETY.”
14 Sources: IMS by NFPA Fire Attack by Emergency Resources Inc. Fire Officer’s Handbook of Tactics by John NormanStrategic Concepts in Fire Fighting by Edward P. McAniff
15 DISCUSSION Residential Garage Car Fires Strip Mall/Deluge gun Mid-Rise/Outside balconyNursing Home
16 Q.A.S. Strategy and Tactics Exercise The Plaza: Jog Rd. Boynton BeachQ.A.S. Strategy and Tactics Exercise
17 Assisted Care Living Facility 3 Story Building: Type 5P – Concrete and wood – 1 hour. Ext. block walls, poured conc. Floors.1st fl. 53,000 #ft (core style hallways)2nd & 3rd #ft (center style hallwaysRoof: Tile, wood truss/joistStandpipes/Sprinklers145 apartments