4 A. How It WorksAllows you to exert you input force over a longer distance
5 B. Mechanical Advantage You can determine the ideal mechanical advantage of an inclined plane by dividing the length of the incline by its height.Ideal mechanical advantage = length of incline ÷ height of incline
6 2. WedgeWedge: device that is thick at one end and tapers to a thin edge at the other end.Examples: zipper, knife
7 A. How It WorksInput forces exerted on a wedge causes the output forces to push the wedge into the object.
8 B. Mechanical Advantage The ideal mechanical advantage of a wedge is determined by dividing the length of the wedge by its width.The longer and thinner a wedge is, the greater its mechanical advantage.
9 3. Screws Screw: inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder Examples: threads in a jar lid, bolt
10 A. How It WorksThreads of a screw act like an inclined place to increase the distance over which you exert the input force
11 B. Mechanical Advantage The ideal mechanical advantage of a screw is the length around the threads divided by the length of the screw.
12 4. LeversLever: rigid bar that is free to pivot or rotate on a fixed pointFulcrum: fixed point that a lever pivots around
13 A. How It WorksWhen you push down, you exert an input force on the handle which pivots on the fulcrum.
14 B. Mechanical Advantage The ideal mechanical advantage of a lever is determined by dividing the distance from the fulcrum to the input force by the distance from the fulcrum to the output force.Ideal mechanical advantage = distance from fulcrum to input force÷ distance from fulcrum to output force
15 C. Different Types of Levers 1st class: always change the direction of the input force2nd class: increase force but do not change the direction of the input force3rd class: increase distance but do not increase the direction of the input force
16 5. Wheel and AxleWheel and axle: simple machine made of 2 circular objects fastened together that rotate about a common axisExamples: screw driver, doorknob
17 A. How It WorksIncreases to your force but you must exert your force over a long distance.
18 B. Mechanical Advantage You can find the ideal mechanical advantage of a wheel and axle by dividing the radius of the wheel by the radius of the axle.Mechanical advantage = radius of wheel ÷ radius of axis
19 6. PulleyPulley: simple machine made of a grooved wheel with a rope or cable wrapped around it
20 A. How It Works You use a pulley by pulling on one end of the rope. Pulleys can decrease the amount of input force needed to lift an object or it can change the direction of your input force.
21 B. Types of PulleysThere are 3 types of pulleys: a fixed pulley (attached to a structure), a moveable pulley (attached to the object you are moving), and a block and tackle (combination of a fixed an a moveable pulley).The ideal mechanical advantage of a pulley is equal to the number of sections of rope that support the object.
25 8. Compound MachinesCompound machine: machine that utilizes 2 or more simple machinesThe ideal mechanical advantage of a compound machine is the product of the individual ideal mechanical advantages of the simple machines that make it up.