What is a Machine? Any device that makes work easier.
How do machines make work easier? Increase force Work = Force X Distance If force is increased then distance will decrease Ex. car jack
How do machines make work easier? Increase distance Ex. Ramp
How do machines make work easier? By changing the direction of the force being applied. Ex. Car jack, wedge (ax), and pulley
Work done by machines Force applied to machine is input force. Output force is the force applied by machine to overcome resistance.
Work done by machines Law of conservation of energy – energy is always conserved Amount of energy of the machine transfers to the object cannot be greater than the amount of energy transferred to the machine 1. Some energy transferred will be changed to heat due to friction An Ideal Machine with no friction and would have the same input work and output work.
Work in = Work out W in = W out F in x d in = F out x d out Example: suppose a hammer claw moves a distance of.01 meters to remove a nail. If the output force of 1,500 Newtons is exerted by the claw of the hammer, and you move the handle of the hammer.05 meters, you can find the input force needed.
The Mechanical Advantage Mechanical advantage (MA) is the number of times a machine multiplies the effort force. It is calculated by MA equals resistance force divided by effort force. mechanical advantage = output force / input force MA = __F out __ F in
Efficiency Efficiency is the measure of how much of the work put into a machine is changed into useful output work by the machine Efficiency = __Output work__ x 100 Input work Efficiency of a machine is always less than 100%
Efficiency Lubricants can make machines more efficient by reducing friction.
Simple machine A machine that does work with only one movement is a simple machine.
Lever A lever is a bar that is free to pivot about a fixed point called the fulcrum Input arm - part of lever on which effort force is applied Output arm – part of the lever that exerts the resistance force.
Classes of levers First-class Second-classThird-class
Pulleys A pulley is a grooved wheel with a rope, chain, or cable running along the groove.
Three types of pulleys 1. fixed pulley – attached to something that doesn’t move 2. movable pulley – end of rope fixed and wheel is free to move 3. Block and tackle – system of pulleys consisting of fixed and movable pulleys
Wheel and Axle Wheel and axle – machine with two wheels of different sizes rotating together; modified lever form
Wheel and Axle Wheel and axle – machine with two wheels of different sizes rotating together; modified lever form Gears are a modified form of the wheel and axle
Inclined Plane Inclined Plane – sloping surface that reduces the amount of force required to do work Less force is required if a ramp is longer and less steep.
Screw Screw is an inclined plan wrapped in a spiral around a cylindrical post
Wedge An inclined plan with one or two sloping sides is a wedge.
Compound machine A compound machine uses a combination of two or more simple machines.