Engage You will be watching a movie clip from Body Defenses Against Diseases
Explore What Do Bones Have to Do With the Immune System? You are going to color, label and research the functions of the immune system organs.
Explore Immune System Manipulative You will use large laminated pieces representing structures like antigens, interferons, anti-viral proteins, phagocytosis, inflammation, leukocytes, and other concepts of specific and non-specific immunology of the immune system to illustrate the various steps that occur during the “battle of the antigens.”
Explain Are we constantly bombarded with pathogens? Are we constantly sick? How do we not stay sick all of the time? Nonspecific (Innate Immune System)
Skin First line of defense Barrier Populated by millions of microbes that inhibit the multiplication of pathogens on the skin
Secretions Mucus, Gastric Juices, Sweat, Tears, Saliva Muscus – keeps body areas from drying out Viscous (thick) – traps microbes, swallowed and gastric juices destroy bacteria and their toxins Sweat, Tears, Saliva Enzyme Lysozyme – breaks down the cell walls of some bacteria
Phagocytosis What if microbes pass skin and secretions? Encounter cells that carry on phagocytosis Phagocyte –leukocyte that ingests and destroys pathogens by engulfing them Macrophage – giant scavengers or big eaters – develop from monocytes They eventually die and leave a collection of dead white blood cells and various body fluids - pus
Inflammation Reaction to any type of injury to body tissues (Infection or Trauma) Four Symptoms – Caused by Release of Histamines 1. Redness 2. Swelling 3. Pain 4. Heat Phagocytes migrate to injured site Ingest pathogens Release a chemical to cause hypothalamus to reset temperature A temp is good to a point
Protective Proteins (Slide 1) Complement – group of proteins attach to pathogens damage their plasma membrane Attract phagocytes What about viruses?
Protective Proteins (Slide 2) Phagocytes CANNOT destroy viruses Interferons Protect human cells from viruses Produced by body cells infected by the virus Diffuses into uninfected neighboring cells They produce antiviral proteins that disrupt viral replication
Adaptive Immune System (Specific) Immunity – the body recognizes a SPECIFIC pathogen SPECIFIC – job of lymphatic system Humoral (Antibody) immunity Cell-Mediated immunity
Lymph Organs Lymph MUST be filtered before it returns to the blood Lymphatic organs Tonsils Thymus Lymph Nodes Liver Spleen Peyer’s Patch on Small Intestine Bone Marrow
Tongue and Tonsils Fights bacteria and other harmful materials that enters your nose and mouth
Lymph Nodes & Lymphocytes Lymph Node – small tissue mass that holds lymphocytes – filters lymph (e.g., Tonsils)
Liver/Spleen Detects and responds to foreign substances in the blood Filters out and destroys bacteria and worn-out red blood cells DOES NOT filter lymph it filters _______.
Antibody Immunity (Chemical Warfare) Self vs. Non-Self Initial Infection Foreign antigen get in the body it causes the production of antibodies Reinfection – do not get sick; have immunity - fight off future infections e.g., B-Cell produce antibodies when activated
Thymus Gland Located above the heart Where lymphocytes mature and develop into cells that fight SPECIFIC pathogens T-Cells Newborns and Young Children - prominent - continues to grow until puberty AFTER Puberty - gradually decreases in size
Cellular Immunity Memory B-Cells Helper T-Cells, Killer T- Cells and Suppressor T- Cells Continually circulate through the blood looking for the presence of past infections
Vaccination and Immunizations Inject viral or bacterial protein into the body to mount up an immune response and cause immunity
Immune System Disorders, I Allergies Overreaction of immune system Allergens; cause mast cells to release histamines Antihistamines
Immune System Disorders, II Autoimmune Diseases Makes a mistake and attacks the body’s own cells. Can’t distinguish between self and non-self Examples 1. Type I Diabetes – attacks insulin producing cells 2. Rheumatoid arthritis – connective tissue in joints 3. Myasthenia gravis – neuromuscular junctions 4. Multiple sclerosis – neurons in brain and spinal cord
Immune System Disorders, II Immunodeficiency Disease Immune system fails to develop normally or the immune system is destroyed SCIDS – Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Syndrome AIDS
Elaborate Watch immune system clip with ice climber Rob Taylor from the 1995 PBS video Universe Within. You will visit the following website: http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/med icine/immunity/ http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/med icine/immunity/ At this website, you will find a link to an animated immune system game that will help you better understand the immune system.
Evaluate Without any assistance, you will correctly label 5 out of 6 immune system organs with their name and function when completing the immune system cut and paste activity.