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Lymphatic System and Immunity Human Anatomy and Physiology II Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson
Fluid Leaves Capillary Cells Blood Blood Capillary
Functions of Lymphatic System Drain fluid from around cells Absorb fat from intestines Circulate lymph Filter lymph Immunity
Right Lymphatic Duct Thoracic Duct
Lymph Fluid of the lymphatic system Similar to blood plasma and interstitial fluid
Lymphatic Vessels Transport lymph Lymph is returned to the circulatory system at either the right or left subclavian veins
Lymph Nodes Filter lymph –Microorganisms –Cancer cells Lymphocytes Monocytes
Thymus Programs some lymphocytes to develop into T-cells
Spleen Filters blood –Worn out RBC –Bacteria Lymphocytes Monocytes
Edema Accumulation of interstitial fluid
Causes of Edema Blockage of lymphatic system Increased pressure in veins Lack of albumin –Decreases fluid returning to blood capillaries by osmosis Inflammation
Nonspecific Body Defenses Skin Acid –Stomach –Vagina Mucus Saliva Tears
More Nonspecific Defenses Phagocytosis Complement Fever Inflammation
Inflammation Bodies response to tissue injury Classic signs –Heat –Redness –Swelling –Pain
Capillary More Permeable Plasma Leaks Out
Capillary More Permeable Antibodies Leaks Out
Capillary More Permeable WBCs Leave by Diapedesis
Wall of Fibrin Forms
Steroid Hormones Hydrocortisone, cortisone and others Depress inflammation Used to treat inflammatory diseases –Rheumatoid arthritis
Antigens Molecules often found in the membrane of cells Antigens of foreign cells stimulate an immune response
Self Antigens Antigens of our own cells Do not cause an immune response in our body –Usually cause an immune response in another person MHC proteins –Major Histocompatibility Complex
Cells of the Immune System APCs –Antigen-presenting cells B cells –B lymphocytes T cells –T lymphocytes
Antigen-Presenting Cells Macrophages Engulf foreign cells and attach the cells antigens on their MHC proteins
Lymphocytes T Cells B Cells
B Cell Receptor Foreign Cell
Cytotoxic T Cell = Killer T Cell Receptor Body Cell
Helper T Cell Receptor APC
Antigen-Presenting Cell APC Macrophages and other cells Engulfs and digests foreign cells Present antigens on MHC proteins to T cells
B Cells Lymphocytes that react directly with antigens Require stimulation from Helper T Cells Offspring become –Plasma cells –Memory B cells Humoral Immunity
Plasma Cells Produce huge numbers of antibodies –2000/second
Helper T Cell Reacts with antigen from APC Stimulates Cytotoxic T Cells and B Cells –Secretes Interleukin II
Cytotoxic T Cells Activated by antigens on any body cell Require stimulation from Helper T Cells Destroys body cells infected with viruses Destroys cancer cells Cellular Immunity
Memory Cells T Cells and B Cells Remember antigen React to a second invasion of an antigen more rapidly
Suppressor T Cells Stops T cells and B cells after an infection has been conquered
Cytokines Chemicals used in cellular immunity Interleukin I –Produced by macrophages –Stimulates helper T cells Interleukin II –Produced by helper T cells Perforin –Causes lysis of target cell
Virus Protein Coat DNA or RNA
Virus Attaches to Body Cell
Viral DNA Enters Host
Protein Coats Synthesized
Viral DNA Synthesized
Viruses Exit Cell
Host Cell Killed by Virus
Interferon Produced by Dying Cell
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome HIV Virus Attacks and destroys Helper T Cells –Depresses humoral and cellular immunity
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