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Published byHorace Patterson Modified over 8 years ago
Water Security in Iraq Anton Stemberger EU Delegation to Iraq
INDEX 1.Water situation in Iraq 2.Sector Framework 3.History of EC interventions in Iraq 4.Coordination 5.Challenges and opportunities
Iraq has experienced dramatic change in 3 decades: from plentiful to critically low A decrease of available water but supply is sufficient to meet demands Iraq is depending on outside surface water supply Lacking behind in terms of infrastructure and management of its resources Water behavior has not adjusted to the changing environment Last but not least the political instability
Status quo of the sector Administrative structure –Highly centralized system for 15 governorates –Regional government arrangement for Kurdistan –Baghdad municipality Legal framework –Constitutions 2005 stipulates the right of local government units to acquire more power in delivering public services –Old and outdated laws (from the 1960ies with few amendments) Policies –National focus of policy makers is more on immediate emerging needs than engage into mid and long term planning –A national Development Plan was developed for the years 2010 to 2014 (a good start but more needs to be done)
Continuation… Institutional capacity –Weak civil service management arrangement across the board –Around 2.5 Million civil servants on GoI payroll (around 20,000 working for MoWR and MoMPW) Macro-economic environment; –Iraq is not a classical post conflict country; mid income level –More than 95 % of state revenue from oil and gas export –High youth unemployment rates Public financial management –Iraq ranks on place 175 out of 178 in the TI index –Political transition comes with fiscal fragility
History of EU interventions History of EU interventions 1.From 2003 – 2007 Funds were channeled through trust funds (International Reconstruction Funding Facility for Iraq) managed by UN and WB Focus on Humanitarian aid and post conflict reconstruction 2.From 2008 to 2010 Funds are channeled through bilateral programs (Art 23 DCI; special measures) mostly implemented with UN Focus on transformation from crisis situation to medium and long term planning
EU current programming Capacity building 1.Public Sector Modernisation (Public Financial Management) A hole of government reform with special emphasis on Water and Sanitation (as well as education and health) Policy& Legislation, Finance and Service Delivery reform for GoI 2.CSP 2011 – 2013 Improve integrated ground water management Introduce comprehensive water monitoring system Raise awareness on water related issues 3.Instrument for Stability transfer of EU know how in terms of management of shared water Support disaster protection and mitigation mechanisms
What are the others doing? After 2003, focus on infrastructure rehabilitation Now most are either reducing the intervention in Iraq or completely withdrawing GoI is still heavily investing into its long neglected infrastructure (and is weak in coordination) Coordination mechanisms are the IPF/sub group water (Iraqi Partner Forum) UNDAF/Sub Priority Groups (United Nations Development Assistance Framework) and ad hoc meetings (I.e. US)
Challenges Political instability Limited access to the field Limited numbers of companies/organizations able and willing to operate in Iraq Security costs of interventions are significant Timing of strategy, programming and implementation
Opportunities Good reputation of the EU amongst the Iraqi population and GoI strategic interest to have close ties The countries ability to finance its recovery The countries’ potential to revitalize its capacity/raise its educational level (to “old” standards)
Thank you for your attention
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