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The Role and Design of Instructional Materials

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1 The Role and Design of Instructional Materials
Instructor: Dr. Mavis Shang Presenter: Sophia 5 June 2008 I-Shou University, Taiwan

2 The Form of Teaching Materials
Printed materials ex. books, workbooks, worksheets, readers Nonprint materials ex. cassette, audio materials, videos Both print and nonprint sources ex. self-access materials, materials on the Internet Magazines, newspapers, TV programs

3 The role of materials (Cunningsworth, 1995)
A resource for presentation materials A source of activities for learner practice and communicative interaction A reference source for learners on grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and so on A source of stimulation and ideas for classroom activities A syllabus A support for less experienced teachers

4 The functions of materials
As a source of language As a learning support For motivation and stimulation For reference (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998)

5 Authentic versus created materials
Authentic materials: Teaching resources that are not specially prepared for pedagogical purpose Created materials: Text books and other specially developed instructional resources

6 Advantages of authentic materials
have a positive effect on learner motivation provide authentic cultural information about the target culture provide exposure to real language relate more closely to learners’ needs support a more creative approach to teaching (Phillips & Shettlesworth, 1978; Clarke, 1989; Peacock, 1997)

7 Critics of using authentic materials
Created materials can also be motivating for learners Authentic materials often contain difficult language Created materials may be superior to authentic materials because they are generally built around a graded syllabus Using authentic materials is a burden for teachers

8 Past and current trends in English language textbooks
Then Author and academic centered Uncertain global market European focus Sell what is published Culture and methodology of origin English for its own sake Now Market led Specific fragmented markets Pacific Rim/ Latin American focus International or local culture Indigenous learning situations English for specific purposes

9 Past and current trends in English language textbooks
Then UK/ US publisher dominance Native speaker expertise Culturally insensitive Low risk / competition Little design Artificial texts and tasks Single-volume titles Now Rise in local publishing Nonnative speaker competence Culturally sensitive High risk / competition Design rich Authenticity Multicomponent/multimedia

10 Advantages of using commercial textbooks
Provide structure and a syllabus for a program Help standardize instruction Maintain quality Provide a variety of learning resources Be efficient Provide effective language models and input Train teachers Visually appealing

11 Negative effects of commercial textbooks
May contain inauthentic language May distort content May not reflect students’ needs Can deskill teachers Be expensive

12 Evaluating textbooks Before evaluating a textbook, information is
needed on the following issues: The role of the textbook in the program ex. Will it be used with small classes or large ones? The teachers in the program ex. Are teachers free to adapt and supplement the book? The learners in the program ex. What do learners typically expect in a textbook?

13 Criteria for textbook evaluation
They should: Correspond to learners’ needs. Match the aims and objectives of the language learning program. Reflect the present or future uses Take account of students’ needs Have a clear role as a support for learning (Cunningsworth, 1995)

14 A checklist for textbook evaluation and selection ( Appendix 2)
Organized under the following categories (p. 274) Aims and approaches Design and organization Language content Skills Topic Methodology Teachers’ books Practical considerations (Cunningsworth, 1995)

15 Questions to ask when selecting ESP materials
Will the materials stimulate and motivate? To what extend does the material match the stated learning objectives and your learning objectives? To what extent will the materials support the learning process? (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998)

16 Factors involved in textbook evaluation and selection
Program factors Teacher factors Learner factors Content factors Pedagogical factors

17 Adapting textbooks A good provider of materials will be able to:
Select appropriately from what is available Be creative with what is available Modify activities to suit learners’ needs Supplement by providing extra activities (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998)

18 Forms of adaptation Modifying content Adding or deleting content
Reorganizing content Addressing omissions Modifying tasks Extending tasks

19 Preparing materials for a program
Advantages: ‧Relevance ‧Develop expertise ‧Reputation ‧Flexibility Disadvantages ‧Cost ‧Quality ‧Training

20 The nature of materials development
The process of materials development: Preparation: ex. critical analysis of texts Representation: ex. examples, demonstrations Selection: ex. choice from modes of teaching, organizing, managing, and arranging Adapting and tailoring to student characteristics: ex. consideration of social class, gender, age (Shulman, 1987)

21 Characteristics for good language teaching materials (Tomlinson, 1998)
Materials should: achieve impact help learners feel at ease help learners to develop confidence be relevant and useful to students require and facilitate learner self-investment expose the learners to language in authentic use provide the learners with opportunities to achieve communicative purpose take into account that positive effects of instruction are usually delayed

22 Characteristics for good language teaching materials
Materials should: take into account that the learners have different learning styles take into account that learners differ in affective attitudes permit a silent period at the beginning of instruction maximize learning potential not rely too much on controlled practice provide opportunities for outcome feedback Learners must be ready to acquire the points being taught The learners’ attention should be drawn to linguistic features of the input

23 Decisions in materials design
Processes of program design and materials design: Developing aims Developing objectives Developing a syllabus Organizing the course into units Developing a structure for units Sequencing units Choosing input and sources Selecting exercise types

24 Choosing input and sources
Grammar materials Listening materials Reading materials Writing materials Speaking materials ** copyright permission

25 Selecting exercise types (Appendix 1, p.272)
An example of exercises that involve a nonlinguistic response to the text: Ordering a sequence of pictures Comparing texts and pictures Matching Using illustrations Completing a document Mapping it out Using the information in a text Jigsaw reading (Grellet, 1981)

26 Selecting exercise types
An example of exercises that involve a linguistic response to the text: Reorganizing the information: recording events Reorganizing the information: using grids Comparing several texts Completing a document Question types Study skills: summarizing Study skills: note taking (Grellet, 1981)

27 Managing a materials writing project ( Appendix 3, p. 277)
A team-based writing project involves: Selecting the project team Planning the number of stages involved Identifying reviewers Planning the writing schedule Piloting the materials Design and production

28 Monitoring the use of materials
Forms of Monitoring: Observation Feedback sessions Written reports Review Students’ reviews

29 Thank you!

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