Presentation on theme: "YL Material Design & Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 YL Material Design & Development Week 3Tomlinson’s IntroductionHalliwell’s Young Learners1
2 Housekeeping: Name Cards English Nickname: _________address: ______________Phone #: __________________Your PictureSomething about your self:_______________________________________2
3 Reflection on Homework Homework for Next WeekRead and answer the questions to Paul’s “Child Centered Learning” p. 161 (Qs) pp (reading)Reflection on HomeworkDiscuss in small groups or with a partner:What instincts, skills and characteristics do children have when they enter the classroom and how we use these instincts, skills and characteristics to help them learn a second language?Make a list of teacher actions that can help students build confidence. Make a list of teacher actions that hinder student confidence. Why is building confidence and creating a safe and comfortable environment important?How can we create opportunities for real communication in our classes and why is real communication important?
4 Questions about Tomlinson? Which of the 16 features of good materials do you have questions about?
5 Materials should achieve impact Materials should help learners to feel at easeMaterials should help learners develop confidenceWhat is being taught should be perceived as relevant and usefulMaterials should facilitate learner self-investment and discoveryLearners must be ready to acquire the points being taughtMaterials should expose the learners to language in authentic useLearner’s attention should be drawn to the linguistic features of the inputMaterials should provided opportunities to use the TL for communicative purposesMaterials should take into account that the positive effects of instruction are usually delayedMaterials should take into account that learners have different learning stylesMaterials should take into account that learners differ in affective attitudeMaterials should permit a silent period at the beginning of instructionMaterials should maximize learning potentialMaterials should not rely too much on controlled practiceMaterials should provide opportunities for outcome feedback
7 2. Materials should help learners to feel at ease Things that a material developer can do to make Ss feel at ease: ’lots of white spaceillustrations that learners can relate tobalance Ss academic and emotional needs, so….materials seem helpful rather than test likematerials that have a humane personality and voice rather than semi-official documents that one might find at a government officeuse active voice rather than passiveexamples and stories that make it seem more real; concrete and connect to the Ss lives and social contextLanguage should be inclusive It’s the learner’s language, too! How material developers/Ts use of the target language shouldn’t make Ss feel inferior; the level and the way the TL is ‘used’ should neither demean nor patronize
9 3. Materials should help learners develop confidence Challenge level (i+1).Staging and task sequencingRemoving scaffolding and support languageSuccess builds success and success = confidence
10 4. What is being taught should be perceived as relevant and useful Find out what your Ss like and want to learn through needs analysisMake task and activities “real” & “meaningful”Allow for Ss personalization of learningUse games, contest and competitions to create materials that have the perception of relevance
11 5. Materials should facilitate learner self-investment and discovery Learning situations are created in which the learning is often implicitInductive methods are usedLearner-centered, task-based, learn by doingSs-Ss collaboration and peer learning maximizedTeacher Talk Time (TTT) minimizedTeacher’s don’t teach; students learn
12 Classroom that facilitate learner self-investment and discovery often look like this. Where’s the teacher?Present, but not directly involved.
13 6. Learners must be ready to acquire the points being taught Materials are developed so Ts can easily do initial and ongoing assessmentMaterials are created with the understanding that Ss learn at different rates, and not all Ss are necessarily ready to acquire what is being taughtDevelopmental sequence is taken into account
14 Developmental Sequence The terms above refers to the passage of learners through a series (of in most cases) progressively more accurate manifestations of a given feature such as negation, question-forms, etc…The developmental sequence for L2 learners is very similar to the developmental sequence for L1 learners of English.
15 7. Materials should expose the learners to language in authentic use Authentic Input: listening and reading texts created by native speakers for native speakersAuthentic Output: Tasks and activities that have a real context of use
16 8. Learner’s attention should be drawn to the linguistic features of the input Meaning before formMaterials help s to notice gap in interlanguageRecycling of key points or features to assure that Ss notice and acquireUse enhanced input techniques to drawn Ss attn to salient features of inputSchema activation
17 Enhanced Input Jane plans to marry Tom. She likes Tom, but Tom doesn’t like her.Tom always runs when he sees her.She catches Tom.Tom falls in love.It ends happily.What do I want my Ss to notice?How is their attention drawn to the input?
19 Preparing Ss to learn new vocabulary and concepts
20 9. Materials should provided opportunities to use the TL for communicative purposes Information and opinion gapsSurveyMingle activities
21 10. Materials should take into account that the positive effects of instruction are usually delayed
22 11. Materials should take into account that learners have different learning styles This will be discussed in detail later in the lesson.
23 12. Materials should take into account that learners differ in affective attitude providing choice of…different types of textsdifferent kinds of activitiesproviding optional extras for highly motivated and higher level learnersremembering variety is the spice of lifeincluding opportunities for Ss to discuss…the value of learning Englishtheir attitudes and feeling about the course and materialsbeing aware of the cultural sensitivity of your learnersgiving Ss opportunities to connect classroom themes and topics to their own lives and experiencesproviding roles for reluctant learners who do not want to participate in group work
24 13. Materials should permit a silent period at the beginning of instruction
25 14. Materials should maximize learning potential Left Brainuses logicdetail orientedfacts rulewords and languagepresent and pastmath and sciencecan comprehendKnowingAcknowledgesorder/pattern perceptionknows object nameRight Brainuses feeling"big picture" orientedimagination rulessymbols and imagespresent and futurephilosophy & religioncan "get it" (i.e. meaning)believesappreciatesspatial perceptionknows object function
26 15. Materials should not rely too much on controlled practice
27 16. Materials should provide opportunities for outcome feedback
28 Discussing HalliwellCan you think of examples of how children are good at the following:Interpreting meaningUsing language creativelyLearning indirectlyHaving funImaginationNo fear of talking/Desire for interaction
29 Discussing HalliwellWhat does Halliwell believe teachers should base their teaching approaches on?The author talks about content and attitude goals; what are content and attitude goals and why does the author say attitude goals are to prioritized?
30 Discussing Haliwell Summarize the following in your groups Special nature of languageChecking understandingTreating MistakesReal exchangesTeaching in the target language (TL)