Presentation on theme: "YL Material Design & Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 YL Material Design & Development Week 3Tomlinson’s IntroductionHalliwell’s Young Learners1
2 Attendance and homework Check Tomlinson’s homework
3 Homework for Next WeekRead and answer the questions to Paul’s “Child Centered Learning” p. 173 (Qs) pp (reading)
4 Halliwell’s Young Learners Discuss the homework in small groups or with a partner
5 Discussing HalliwellCan you think of examples of how children are good at:Interpreting meaningUsing language creativelyLearning indirectlyHaving funUsing their imaginationNo fear of talking/Desire for interaction
6 Discussing HalliwellThe author talks about content and attitude goals;What are content and attitude goalsWhy does the author say attitude goals are to prioritized?
7 Discussing Haliwell Summarize the following in your groups Special nature of language (2.2)Checking understanding (2.3)Treating Mistakes (2.4)Real exchanges (2.5)Teaching in the target language (2.6)
8 Questions about Tomlinson? Which of the 16 features of good materials do you have questions about?
9 YL Class Results # Class D Class E 1 6 5 9 2 3 10 4 11 12 13 14 7 15 8 16
10 Materials should achieve impact Materials should help learners to feel at easeMaterials should help learners develop confidenceWhat is being taught should be perceived as relevant and usefulMaterials should facilitate learner self-investment and discoveryLearners must be ready to acquire the points being taughtMaterials should expose the learners to language in authentic useLearner’s attention should be drawn to the linguistic features of the inputMaterials should provided opportunities to use the TL for communicative purposesMaterials should take into account that the positive effects of instruction are usually delayedMaterials should take into account that learners have different learning stylesMaterials should take into account that learners differ in affective attitudeMaterials should permit a silent period at the beginning of instructionMaterials should maximize learning potentialMaterials should not rely too much on controlled practiceMaterials should provide opportunities for outcome feedback
12 2. Materials should help learners to feel at ease Use lots of white spaceillustrations that learners can relate tobalance Ss academic and emotional needs, so….materials seem helpful rather than test likeuse active voice rather than passiveConcrete examples and stories that connect to Ss and real worldLanguage should be inclusive It’s the learner’s language, too! The Target Language shouldn’t make Ss feel inferior
14 3. Materials should help learners develop confidence Challenge level (i+1)Staging and task sequencingRemoving scaffolding and support languageSuccess builds success and success = confidence
15 4. What is being taught should be perceived as relevant and useful Find out what your Ss like and want to learn through needs analysisMake task and activities “real” & “meaningful”Allow for Ss personalization of learningUse games and competitions to create materials that seem relevant
16 5. Materials should facilitate learner self-investment and discovery Learning situations are often implicitInductive methods are usedLearner-centered, task-based, learn by doingSs-Ss collaboration and peer learning maximizedTeacher Talk Time (TTT) minimized
17 Classroom that facilitate learner self- investment and discovery often look like this. Where’s the teacher?Present, but not directly involved.
18 6. Learners must be ready to acquire the points being taught Materials are developed so teachers can easily do initial and ongoing assessmentMaterials are created with the understanding that Ss learn at different rates, and not all Ss are necessarily ready to acquire what is being taughtDevelopmental sequence is taken into account
19 Developmental Sequence The developmental sequence for L2 learners learning English is very similar to the developmental sequence for L1 learners of English. We learn basic words and phrases before learning more complex ones.
20 7. Materials should expose the learners to language in authentic use Authentic Input: listening and reading texts created by native speakers for native speakersAuthentic Output: Tasks and activities that have a real context of use
21 8. Learner’s attention should be drawn to the linguistic features of the input Meaning before formMaterials help students to notice gap in interlanguageIntroduce key points/features many times to assure that Ss notice and acquireUse enhanced input techniques to drawn Ss attention to features of inputSchema activation
22 Enhanced Input Jane plans to marry Tom. She likes Tom, but Tom doesn’t like her.Tom always runs when he sees her.She catches Tom.Tom falls in love.It ends happily.What do I want my Ss to notice?How is their attention drawn to the input?
23 Schema Theory & Schema Activation schema activation - preparing Students to learn new concept or vocabularyThe brain works like a computer with folders and filesPeople use schemata to organize knowledge and provide a framework for future understanding.
24 9. Materials should provided opportunities to use the TL for communicative purposes Information and opinion gapsSurveysMingle activities
25 10. Materials should take into account that the positive effects of instruction are usually delayed Give students multiple chances to use previously taught language and structuresPeer learning – let students teach each otherExtensive readingThis goes beyond lesson planning = unit planning
26 11. Materials should take into account that learners have different learning styles This will be discussed in detail later in the lesson.
27 12. Materials should take into account that learners differ in affective attitude provide choice of texts, activitiesprovide optional extras for highly motivated learnersDiscuss the value of learning English & feelings about the course and materialscultural sensitivitygive Ss opportunities to connect topics to livesprovide roles for reluctant learners
28 13. Materials should permit a silent period at the beginning of instruction Input before outputPeer learning (in TL or L1 to learn TL)Use TPR (Total Physical Response)Respond to Qs by using visuals
29 14. Materials should maximize learning potential Left Brainuses logicdetail orientedfacts rulewords and languagepresent and pastmath and sciencecan comprehendKnowingAcknowledgesorder/pattern perceptionknows object nameRight Brainuses feeling"big picture" orientedimagination rulessymbols and imagespresent and futurephilosophy & religioncan "get it" (i.e. meaning)believesappreciatesspatial perceptionknows object function
30 15. Materials should not rely too much on controlled practice Opportunities for meaningful useRemove scaffolding/supportAllow personalization and creativity
31 16. Materials should provide opportunities for outcome feedback Feedback is important for students, especially if they aren’t successful in communicating.Just correcting them is