Presentation on theme: "Section 1 Quiz What happens during a revolution?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Section 1 Quiz What happens during a revolution? Life changes someLife changes completelyLife changes a littleLife doesn’t change at allWhat can you do with domesticated animals?Watch them huntStudy their originsHunt them for foodUse them for workSpecialization includes people whoAre very good at one skillGrow all their own foodSpeak one language very wellCan solve almost any problemWhen there is a surplus of food,Extra food spoilsPeople wait in line for foodFamilies have extra foodNot enough rain falls to grow foodWhat made the first villages possible?Warm clothingGovernmentArmiesFarmingWhat is one cost of farming?What is one benefit of farming?
2 Section 2 Cities and Civilizations The First CitiesFirst cities were farming villages in the Middle EastThe City of UrukWorld’s first cities- founded between 5000 and 6000 BCCovered nearly 1,000 acresHad houses, gardens, and large public buildingsStrong, well-organized governmentCenters of WealthUruk had a complex economy that included farming and extensive trade within and beyond the cityPeople moved to Uruk because the city was wealthy and filled with goods that people might want to buy
3 The Rise of Civilizations A civilization is a complex society that has cities, a well-organized government, and workers with specialized job skills.The Importance of ResourcesThe rise of civilizations depended on the creation of a food surplus.A resource is a supply of something that can be used as needed.People have to organize their supplies and labor in order to produce the most food possible from the available materialsSettings of Early CivilizationsThe earliest CIVILIZATION also appeared in Southwestern Asia, in the city-states of Sumer.Four of the early civilizations developed in the fertile valley surrounding major rivers:The Nile in northeastern AfricaThe Tigris and Euphrates in southwest AsiaThe Indus in South AsiaThe Huang River in China
4 Features of Civilizations The world’s early civilizations shared the eight basic features of civilizationCities, organized government, established religion, job specialization, social classes, public works, arts and architecture, and a system of writing.CitiesReflect a culture’s success at creating food surpluses, specialization, and government.Served as centers of religion and culture.Organized GovernmentsGovernment has the power and ability to organize large numbers of people for a task, such as moving food from one place to another.Government manages resources so people get what they need to survive.Government can form and train an army.As population grew, rulers relied on public officials who handled different jobs.Established ReligionPeople shared the same ideas about religion so they felt connected to each other and like a part of a larger community.Linked to governmentJob SpecializationAllowed a community to produce the tools and talent they needed to expand and support the complex needs of a civilizationSocial ClassesGroups of people that occupy different ranks or levels in a society.At the top were rulers and priestsIn the middle were farmers, merchants, and skilled workersAt the bottom were slaves.Public WorksBenefits- roads, water systemsRisks- danger to workers, costly, and time-consumingArts and ArchitectureEnriched the lives of early peopleBuildings served a public function but were also objects of beautySystem of WritingRecorded laws, prayers, harvest amounts, deeds of rulersIt helps us learn about ancient civilizations
5 Culture 1: Sumarian My city, Ur, was built along the Euphrates River Culture 1: Sumarian My city, Ur, was built along the Euphrates River. Merchants come to our city to trade. They find traders at the city’s riverside docks offering bounty from up and down the mighty Euphrates. Crops from our farmers also go to faraway lands to be traded for metals or stone that we use in jewelry or tools. People in Ur worship the city’s special god, the moon god Nanna, or go to the giant ziggurat temple. In the courtyard of the ziggurat, you can see all of Ur’s exciting daily life. I would love to visit the beautiful palace of King Ur-Namma but only nobles and priests can go there. The king has brought our great city back to glory. I hope his scribes write down his wonderful achievements.Culture 2: Incan My city, Machu Picchu, is found high in the mountains. Special messengers bring important news to the city on the empire’s amazing roads miles of them in all. They also take orders to faraway parts of the empire. Sometimes they go the palace where Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui and others in the royal family live. Farmers and priests also live in my city. They can meet in Machu Picchu’s beautiful main plaza. Not far from the plaza is the Intihuatana, a special sundial for praying to the sun god Inti. Record keepers use a system of knots to keep track of how many people live in the city.