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Energy Balance Body Composition. Gaining & Losing weight Whether a person gains or loses weight depends on: –Energy intake vs. energy expenditure –Genetic.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Balance Body Composition. Gaining & Losing weight Whether a person gains or loses weight depends on: –Energy intake vs. energy expenditure –Genetic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Balance Body Composition

2 Gaining & Losing weight Whether a person gains or loses weight depends on: –Energy intake vs. energy expenditure –Genetic factors –Childhood weight –Behavioral factors –Social factors

3 Energy Balance Energy balance –Occurs when energy intake = energy expenditure –Energy intake = kcal from food –Energy expenditure = energy expended at rest + during physical activity


5 Energy Expenditure BMR Physical activity Thermic Effects –Cost of food processing

6 Energy Balance Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) –Energy expended to maintain basal, or resting, functions of the body highest proportion of total energy expenditure –More lean tissue increases your BMR –BMR decreases with age ~3-5% per decade after 30 –Estimating BMR body weight (kg) * 1.0 kcal/kg/hour

7 So, obese people have lower BMR, right?

8 Factors affecting BMR

9 Energy Balance Thermic Effect of Food (TEF) –Energy expended to process food –~5-10% of total kcal of the meal 500 kcal meal costs 25 - 50 kcal to process –Fats require little energy to digest, transport & absorb –Proteins & Carbs require more

10 Physical Activity 20-35% of total energy output Includes everything above basal level –Sitting, standing, walking Moving large muscles requires more Energy Calculating Energy expenditure: –Energy Cost (kcal/kg/min) * Time (min) Do a couple


12 Genetic factors Different hypotheses explain the impact of genetics on body fat –Thrifty Gene Theory –Set-point Theory –Leptin Theory

13 Thrifty Gene Theory H1: individuals with the gene use less energy (at all times) than people who do not possess the gene –More efficient fat storage –Lower metabolic rates Evolutionary story: Protection against starvation during lean times Applied to American Indian populations with high rates of obesity & diabetes –Evidence: No direct; little indirect

14 Set-Point Theory H1: Body is tuned to maintain weight within a narrow range, or “set-point” Evidence: –Body appears to maintain weight @ present level –Rebound weight gain among dieters –Occasional over-eating often does not result in weight gain –Can change set point through consistent, long term changes in diet & exercise

15 Leptin Theory Leptin: hormone produced by adipose cells; goes systemic –Binds to neurons in “satiety center” in brain; inhibits neurons that stimulate feelings of hunger –Increased production reduces food intake, body weight and body fat

16 Childhood weight Environmental factors in childhood influence –Food choices –Activity levels –Later adult behaviors Childhood overweight increases the risk of heart disease and premature death as an adult

17 Behavioral Choices Food Choices –Composition of diet should remain balanced –Overeating dietary fat increases obesity faster than overeating carbs or proteins –Why? Less energy required to digest fats than other two More easily stored as adipose tissue…no conversion necessary

18 Behavioral Choices Hunger vs. Appetite –Appetite = psychological desire to eat; cause overeating –“Satiety mechanism” malfunction Hormone or sensory receptor malfunction Increase or decrease satiety

19 Social Factors Social factors influence our diet: –Family or cultural traditions –Holidays and celebrations –Easy access to high-fat foods –Less physically active lifestyles –Societal expectations of the “perfect” body

20 How many kcals do we need? Manual calculation: –BMR (women) = body weight (kg) * 0.9 kcal/ kg/hour –BMR (men) = body weight (kg) * 1.0 kcal/ kg/hour 77.3 kg * 1 * 24 = 1855 kcal –Activity = some percentage of BMR; Ex: 70% 1855 kcal * 0.70 = 1299 kcal 1855 + 1299 = 3154 kcal How many are you eating? Recall: –Fats:9 kcal/gram –Carbs:4 kcal /gram –Proteins:4 kcal/gram

21 What is a healthful body weight? Appropriate for your age Maintained without constant dieting Is acceptable to you Based on family history of body shape and weight Promotes healthful eating habits and allows for regular physical activity

22 Evaluating body weight Actual weight is not the only factor to consider Determining if a person’s body weight is healthful should include: 1.Determining the Body Mass Index (BMI) 2.Measuring body composition 3.Assessing the pattern of fat distribution

23 Evaluating body weight Body Mass Index = BMI –BMI = weight (kg) / height (m) 2 –BMI values below 18.5 or above 30 have increased risks of health problems

24 Excess Death among overweight people


26 Declining weight of Miss America

27 Distribution of Body Weights in U.S. Adults Obesity (BMI 30–39.9) Underweight (BMI <18.5) Overweight (BMI 25–29.9) Healthy weight (BMI 18.5–24.9) Extreme obesity (BMI >40) _

28 Achieving & maintaining healthy weight Healthful weight change requires –Gradual change in energy intake –Regular and appropriate physical exercise –Application of behavior modification techniques

29 Losing weight –Follow recommended serving sizes –Reduce intake of high-fat and high-energy foods (~20%) –Regular physical exercise (of ANY kind will do, but which kinds preferentially burn fat?) Increase energy expenditure Increase BMR

30 Gaining weight –Eat 500 to 1,000 extra kcal/day –Eat frequently throughout the day –Maintain a balanced diet; keep fat intake to 25-30% of total energy intake –Avoid tobacco products depresses appetite; increase BMR –Regular exercise with resistance training Promotes conversion of calories to lean muscle rather that fat

31 Gaining weight Supplements? Studies continue to show no effect of AA and protein supplements: –No gains in muscle mass and strength, nor in performance –Including androstenedione (Mark McGuire) Some effects of this supplement are increased LDL:HDL levels (why bad?) & mood disturbances Also, those unfortunate (if you’re a male) feminizing characteristics

32 Disorders & Energy intake Underweight: having too little body fat to maintain health –BMI less than 18.5 kg/m 2 –Increases risk of infection and illness Overweight: –BMI of 25 - 29.5 kg/m 2 –Some health risks; most importantly, adopt healthier lifestyle to avoid becoming obese

33 Obesity & Morbid obesity Obesity: Having excess body fat that adversely effects health BMI 30 - 39.9 kg/m 2 BMI > 40 kg/m 2 = morbidly obese –Body weight exceeds 100% of normal Morbid obesity: body weight exceeding 100% of normal, creating a very high risk for serious health complications


35 Increase in childhood obesity

36 Critical periods Weight gain in specific life stages have strong effects on weight later in life. Weight gain in these periods increase risk of adult obesity & related diseases –Gestation & early infancy –Ages 5-7 –Adolescence

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