Presentation on theme: "IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 DRILL 24 JAN 2012 Which of the following data sets is the potential source for the pie chart below? A B C U.S. Energy Use 1996."— Presentation transcript:
IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 DRILL 24 JAN 2012 Which of the following data sets is the potential source for the pie chart below? A B C U.S. Energy Use 1996 101%
IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 1.Fuels produced from renewable resources 2.Renewable Resources: A natural resource replenished by natural processes at a rate comparable or faster than its rate of consumption by humans or other users. Renewable Fuels Copy in your notebook Energy Sources – Fuels
IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 Biofuel 1.Any fuel with an 80% minimum content by volume of materials derived from living organisms harvested within 10 years of fuel manufacture 2.Ford’s “Model T” – 1 st affordable automobile – designed to run on ethanol 3.The diesel engine – invented 1897 – was designed to run on biodiesel 4.Like coal, natural gas, and petroleum, biofuel is a form of stored solar energy 5.It is biodegradable
IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 Sources of Biofuel 1.Bio Waste – biogas (methane) a) Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ~70% of landfill MSW is biofuel material b) Sewage sludge c) Animal waste and manure d) Used oils 2.Edible Foods Animal fats, vegetable oils, seeds, corn, wheat, sugar cane, etc.
IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 Sources of Biofuel 3.Non-edible Parts of Foods Agricultural residues (peels, skins, husks, straw, cores, fish heads) 4.Algae 1)Yields of algal oil are greater than traditional oilseeds 2)Can grow far from farmlands and forests, minimizing damage to those ecosystems/food chains 3)Can be grown in sewages and next to smokestacks to digest pollutants and give oil
IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 Types of Biofuel 1.Vegetable Oil a) Lower quality (not quite edible) used for fuel oil b) Used veg. oil increasingly used for biodiesel Restaurant cooking oil sold/stolen and used 2.Bioalcohols a) Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol b) Energy content comparable to gasoline c) “Flexfuel” systems can run on gasoline or ethanol
IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 continuation… d) Ethanol is the most common biofuel worldwide e) Brazil is largest source of ethanol f) E85 – most common type – 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline. g) Chemical Formula: 1.Methane = CH 4 2.Methanol = CH 4 O = CH 3 OH 3.Ethane = C 2 H 6 4.Ethanol = C 2 H 6 O = C 2 H 5 OH Alcohol Types of Biofuel
IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 1. What are the (4) sources of biofuel? 2. Name the (4) bioalcohols. 3. What are (5) types of biofuels? March 12, 2014 Drill
IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 1. What are the (4) sources of biofuel? biowaste, edible foods, non-edible food, algae 2. Name the (4) bioalcohols. ethanol, methanol, propanol and butanol 3. What are (5) types of biofuels? vegetable oil, bioalcohol, biodiesel, biogas and biomass Drill
IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 3.Biodiesel 1)Diesel engine was invented to run on peanut oil 2)Most common biofuel in Europe 3)Packs as much energy as its fossil fuel counterpart 4)Can be used in existing diesel engines with little modification 5)Made from vegetable oils – soybean, canola, hemp 6)Made from animal fats 7)Made from algae "The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today. But such oils may become in the course of time as important as the petroleum and coal tar products of the present time“ Rudolf Diesel, 1912 Types of Biofuel
IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 Production of Biodiesel
IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 4.Biogas 1)Produced by anaerobic digestion of organic material a)Anaerobic digestion – microorganisms break down biodegradables in absence of oxygen b)Organic material – a once-living organism, capable of decay, or the product of decay 2)Landfills (70% of landfill) and other biodegradable wastes 3)Manure and other sources currently released into atmosphere 4)Biogas contains methane Types of Biofuel
IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-5 5.Solid Biofuels – Biomass 1)Wood, sawdust, grass cuttings, domestic refuse, charcoal, agricultural waste, non-food energy crops, and dried manure 2)When already in usable form (firewood), can be burned directly for heat or produce steam (for electricity generation) 3)When not in usable form, create pellets out of material to be burned in pellet stove Wood pellet stove Types of Biofuel
U.S. Biofuel Production Note: 2006/07 through 2010/11 are projected based on the February 9, 2007, World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates, the March 2, 2007, Grains and Oilseeds Outlook 2007, and the February 2007 USDA Agricultural Projections to 2016.
U.S. Maintains Corn Exports as Ethanol and Corn Production Expands