Presentation on theme: "Presented by Hikmet Görkem ŞAKIR & Burak GÖNEN. We Will Look At: The Kyoto Protocol Main Renewable Energy Resources What is Biomass? Biomass Energy Sources."— Presentation transcript:
We Will Look At: The Kyoto Protocol Main Renewable Energy Resources What is Biomass? Biomass Energy Sources Global Bioenergy Potentials Profit of Biomass Environmental Value of the Biomass Advantages and Disadvantages of Biomass
The Kyoto Protocol In 16 February 2005, accordance with The Kyoto Protocol entered into force,EU countries have promised to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8% In January 2007,they raised their targed by 20% for the year 2020. The pressure on governments to reduce CO2 emission levels will be a driving force to increase renewable energy production.
Main Renewable Energy Resources Solar Energy BIOMASS Geothermal Energy Wind Energy Wave Energy Hydroelectric
What is Biomass?- Biomass is organic material made from plants and animals (microorganisms). Biomass is a renewable energy source
Biomass Energy Sources Wood wastes and residues Agricultural crop wastes and residues Energy crops Animal wastes Municipal wastes Other waste materials Aquatic plants
We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"the energy from plants and plant- derived material since people began burning wood to cook food and keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can also be used From agriculture or forestry, oil-rich algae, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes. We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"the energy from plants and plant- derived material since people began burning wood to cook food and keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can also be used From agriculture or forestry, oil-rich algae, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes.
Biomass Conversion Technology Direct Combustion Gasification Pyrolysis Anaerobic Digestion Ethanol Production Biodiesel Production Methanol Production
Direct-Fired Gas Turbine Technology- The direct-fired gas turbine is another combustion technology for converting biomass to electricity.
Gasification- Gasification is a thermochemical process that converts biomass into a combustible gas called producer gas.
Pyrolysis Many Oregonians convert biomass to useful energy in their homes by burning wood in a fireplace or woodstove.
Anaerobic Digestion The complex process by which organic matter is decomposed by anaerobic bacteria. The decomposition process produces a gaseous by product often called biogas.
Ethanol Fermentation is the biochemical process that converts sugars into ethanol (alcohol). In contrast to biogas production, fermentation takes place in the presence of air and is, therefore, a process of aerobic digestion.
Biodiesel Production Biodiesel production is a chemical conversion process. The process converts oilseed crops into biodiesel fuel, a substitute for petroleum diesel.
Methanol Production Production of methanol (wood alcohol) from biomass is a thermochemical conversion process. About 186 gallons of methanol can be produced from one ton of biomass feedstock.
Global Bioenergy Potentials Especially,in the use of bioenergy,Central and Northen European Countries are the leader in the World. Forexample:Finland meets the countrie’s energy demands of 22% from bioenergy. Sweeden meets the countrie’s energy demands of 18% from the bioenergy. Austria meets the countrie’s energy demands of %14.
Profit of Bioenergy:an Exampe From Turkey According to calculation of OGM(General Directorate of Forestry),approximately 5-7 million tons of biomass available to use as bioenergy in the forest of Turkey(annually) According to 2008 data, Turkey has 19 million tons of various species coal imported and paid approximately 4.3 billion TL for this imports. If we consider only the tone of the lignite coal,the cost of one tone of imported coal is 145 TL. If, 5 million tons of woody biomass used instead of coal,that means it should not be imported 3 million tons of coal. In this case,Turkey profits 485 million TL.
Environmental Value of the Biomass One ton of coal burned for heating,average 2.8 tonnes of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. One tone of woody biomass is burned,approximately 0.73 tons of co2 emitted into the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide Emissions One tone of biomass One tone of coal
Carbon dioxide emissions cont... In this example if we focus on environmentally,if Turkey use 5 million tons of biomass instead of 3 million tons of coal,that means,Turkey reduce CO2 emissions by 4.75 million tons.
Advantages Biomass used as a fuel reduces need for fossil fuels for the production of heat, steam, and electricity for residential, industrial and agricultural use. Biomass is always available and can be produced as a renewable resource. Biomass fuel from agriculture wastes maybe a secondary product that adds value to agricultural crop. Growing Biomass crops produce oxygen and use up carbon dioxide. Less money spent on foreign oil
Disadvantages Agricultural wastes will not be available if the basic crop is no longer grown. Additional work is needed in areas such as harvesting methods. Research is needed to reduce the costs of production of Biomass based fuels. Land used for energy crops maybe in demand for other purposes, such as faming, conservation, housing, resort or agricultural use.