Presentation on theme: "BIOFUELS Advantages and Disadvantages Brandie Freeman What is a"— Presentation transcript:
1 BIOFUELS Advantages and Disadvantages Brandie Freeman What is a Current Worldwide ProductionA biofuel is a gas or liquid fuel made from recently dead biological material, most commonly plants. Typical biofuel feed stocks include plants, seeds, wood waste, wood liquors, peat, wood sludge, spent sulfite liquors, agricultural waste, straw, tires, fish oils, tall oil, sludge waste, waste alcohol, municipal solid waste, and even landfill gases Source: The Florida Biofuels AssociationHow Can TheyBe Made?There are two common strategies of producing liquid and gaseous agrofuels. One is to grow crops high in sugar or and then use yeast fermentation to produce ethyl alcohol (ethanol). The second is to grow plants that contain high amounts of vegetable oil, such as oil palm, soybean, or algae, When these oils are heated, their viscosity is reduced, and they can be burned directly in a diesel engine, or they can be chemically processed to produce fuels such as biodiesel. Wood and its byproducts can also be converted into biofuels such as woodgas, methanol or ethanol fuel. It is also possible to make cellulosic ethanol from non-edible plant parts, but this can be difficult to accomplish economically.Types of BiofuelsBioalcohols, especially ethanol fuel, are the most common biofuels worldwide. Alcohol fuels are produced by fermenting sugars derived from grains, sugar beets, sugar cane, or other plant products containing sugar. The anaerobic digestion of organic material produces biogas. Biogas can be produced either from biodegradable waste materials or by the use of energy crops fed into anaerobic digesters to supplement gas yields. Landfill gas is a less clean form of biogas that is produced in landfills through naturally occurring anaerobic digestion. Solid biofuels include wood, grass cuttings, charcoal, agricultural waste, non-food energy crops, and dried manure. When raw biomass is in a suitable form, it can burn directly in a stove or furnace to provide heat or steam.“The Renewable Energy Target scheme will accelerate deployment of a range of renewable energy technologies like wind, solar, biomass and geothermal power over the next two decades.” Greg Combet, The Epoch TimesBIOFUELSBrandie FreemanWoodlandHigh School“Biomass Energy is the oldest, most widespread and practical form of renewable energy. The residues from agriculture and forestry could provide 20% of U.S. energy.” Dr. Tom Reed, MITAdvantages and DisadvantagesBiofuels are essentially carbon-neutral, releasing no net carbon into the atmosphere if biomass sources are not overharvested. Also, capturing landfill gases reduces methane emissions. The economic benefits of bioenergies include supporting rural communities, reducing dependence of fossil fuel imports, improved energy efficiency, reduced air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide which can be released from the combustion of fossil fuels.Health risks from indoor air pollution from the burning biofuels are especially hazardous in underdeveloped or developing areas as poor ventilation for smoke can be a problem. Also, rapid harvesting can lead to deforestation and growing crops exerts tremendous impacts on ecosystems as marginal land is converted for agricultural use and fertilizers and pesticides are applied to the future fuels. Biofuel production is competing with food production driving the prices of crops for consumption higher worldwide.Predictionsfor FutureGrowthMany uncertainties remain for the future of biofuels, including competition from unconventional fossil fuel alternatives and concerns about environmental tradeoffs. Perhaps the biggest uncertainty is the extent to which the land intensity of current biofuel production can be reduced. The amount of biofuel that can be produced from an acre of land varies from 100 gallons per acre for EU rapeseed to 400 gallons per acre for U.S. corn and 660 gallons per acre for Brazilian sugarcane.The rise in oil prices is the most important factor boosting the competitiveness of alternative fuels, including biofuels. Rises in oil prices has prolonged opportunities for efficiency gains, stimulated energy conservation, and generated increased supply from traditional and alternative energy sources. The outlook for global biofuels will depend on a number of interrelated factors, including the future price of oil, availability of low-cost feedstocks, sustained commitment to supportive policies by governments, technological breakthroughs that could reduce the cost of second-generation biofuels, and competition from unconventional fossil fuel alternatives.