Presentation on theme: "ACADEME AND PLANT PROTECTION WORK IN THAILAND สถาบันการศึกษาและงานการ อารักขาพืช ของประเทศไทย บรรพต ณ ป้อมเพชร ผู้ก่อตั้งและที่ปรึกษา ศูนย์วิจัยควบคุมศัตรูพืชโดยชีวินทรีย์"— Presentation transcript:
ACADEME AND PLANT PROTECTION WORK IN THAILAND สถาบันการศึกษาและงานการ อารักขาพืช ของประเทศไทย บรรพต ณ ป้อมเพชร ผู้ก่อตั้งและที่ปรึกษา ศูนย์วิจัยควบคุมศัตรูพืชโดยชีวินทรีย์ แห่งชาติ มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร์
Key plant pests - Insect and mite pests - Plant diseases, and - Weeds
Plant pest control terminologies Pest control/extermination/eradication Plant protection Crop protection Pest management Integrated pest management (IPM)
Plant protection strategies Natural control: - Abiotic control - Biotic control Applied control: - Physical control - Mechanical control - Cultural control - Chemical control - Biological control - Microbial control - Genetic control - Legal control - Integrated pest control (IPC)
Legal or regulatory control Legal control: - Domestic legislation, regulation, requirement - Quarantine and inspection laws - International quarantine - Domestic quarantine - Pesticide laws - Regional and international treaties conventions, agreements, etc.
Legal or regulatory control Legislation for pest control (5 classes) 1.Legislation to prevent the introduction of new pests from foreign countries 2. Legislation to prevent the spread of established pests within the country 3. Legislation to enforce the application of control measures that have been found effective in preventing damage by established pests 4. Legislation to prevent the adulteration and misbranding of insecticides and to determine their permissible residue tolerance in foodstuffs, and 5. Legislation to regulate the activities of pest control operators and the application of hazardous pesticides.
Intl. treaties and agreements > 500 intl. treaties and agreements related to environment > 300 are regional > 60 since 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference) Sweden 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), entered into force December 29, 1992 2000 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB), entered into force September 11, 2003 1951 International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), entered into force 1952, amended in 1979 & entered into force 1991, revised text approved in 1997 & entered into force October 2, 2005
Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) MEAs are: - Core environmental conventions and related agreements of global significance - Global conventions relevant to the environment, including regional conventions of global significance - Others restricted by scope and geographical ranges
Global and biodiversity-related MEAs: - Convention on Biological Diversity (BCD), 1992 - Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the CBD, 2000 - Convention on Intl. Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), 1973 - Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of Intl. Importance, 1971
Chemicals-related MEAs: - Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and Their Disposals - Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Principle - Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
Other MEAs: - UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1992 - Kyoto Protocol, 1997, awaiting the Russian federation ratification and will expire in 2012 - Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD), 1994
Plant protection laws (Hard and Soft Laws) Domestic: - Plant Protection Act B.E. 2507 (1964), amended B.E. 2542 (1999) (H) Regional: - ASEAN Ministerial Understandings (S) International: - International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), 1951, amended 1979, revised 1997, entered into force October 2005 (S)
IPPC Objectives To maintain and increase international cooperation in controlling pests and diseases of plants and plant products, and in preventing their introduction and spread across national boundaries
Relationship between CBD and IPPC CBD articles 8 (In Situ Conservation) - Article 8 g – Living modified organism (LMOs) or genetically modified organisms (GMOs) - Article 8 h – Invasive alien species (IAS) - Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety – Transboundary movement and releases of LMOs into the environment
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) CBD Objectives: The conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, ….. Article 8g: Establish or maintain means to regulate, manage or control the risks associated with the use and release of living modified organisms resulting from biotechnology which are likely to have adverse environmental impacts that could affect the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking in to account the risks to human health. Article 8h: Prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species.
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB) CPB Objectives: To contribute to ensuring an adequate level of protection in the field of the safe and transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking into account risks to human health, and specifically focusing on transboundary movements.
Relationship between IPPC and WTO agreements WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement): “No Member should be prevented from adopting or enforcing measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, subject to the requirement that these measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between Members where the same conditions prevail or a disguised restriction on international trade”.
International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs) ISPM No.1 (2006) Phytosanitary principles for the protection of plants and the application of phytosanitary measures in international trade ISPM No. 2 (1995) Guidelines for pest risk analysis ISPM No. 3 (2005) Guidelines for the export, shipment, import and release of biological control agents and other beneficial organisms ISPM No. 4 (1995) Requirements for the establishment of Pest Free Areas ISPM No. 5 (2005) Glossary of phytosanitary terms ISPM No. 6 (1997) Guidelines for surveillance ISPM No. 7 (1997) Export certification system ISPM No. 8 (1998) Determination of pest status in an area ISPM No. 9 (1998) Guidelines for pest eradication ISPM No. 10 (1999) Requirements for the establishment of pest free places of production and pest free production sites
ISPMs ISPM No. 11 (2004) Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests including analysis of environmental risks and living modified organisms ISPM No. 12 (2001) Guidelines for phytosanitary certificates ISPM No. 13 (2001) Guidelines for the notification of non- compliance and emergency action ISPM No. 14 (2002) The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management ISPM No. 15 (2002) Guidelines for regulating wood packaging material in international trade with modification to Annex I (2006) ISPM No. 16 (Regulated non-quarantine pests: concept and application ISPM No. 17 (2002) Pest reporting ISPM No. 18 (2003) Guidelines for the use of radiation as a phytosanitary measures ISPM No. 19 (2003) Guidelines on lists of regulated pests ISPM No. 20 (2004) Guidelines for a phytosanitary import regulatory system
ISPMs ISPM No. 21 (2004) Pest risk analysis for regulated non-quarantine pests ISPM No. 22 (2005) Requirements for the establishment of areas of low pest prevalence ISPM No. 23 (2005) Guidelines for inspection ISPM No. 24 (2005) Guidelines for the determination and recognition of equivalence of phytosanitary measures ISPM No. 25 (2006) Consignment in transit ISPM No. 26 (2006) Establishment of pest free areas for fruit flies (Tephritidae) ISPM No. 27 (2006) Diagnostic protocols for regulated pests ISPM No. 28 (2007) Phytosanitary treatments for regulated pests ISPM No. 29 (2007) Recognition of pest free areas and areas of low pest prevalence
Where do we go from here? National competent authority official? Academicians? Other stakeholders? Lay public? Cooperation? Coordination? Collaboration? Assistance? Joint efforts? Special task forces? Etc.
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