Agriculture Biodiversity in CDB and Cartagena Protocol
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1 Agriculture Biodiversity in CDB and Cartagena Protocol Maria Isabel ManzurFundacion Sociedades Sustentables, ChileMay, 2007
2 Agricultural Biodiversity Agricultural biodiversity includes all components of biological diversity of relevance to food and agriculture.It encompasses the variety and variability of species of animals, plants and micro-organisms, and the variety of ecosystems, which are necessary for food production and food security.Agricultural biodiversity is essential to satisfy basic human needs for food and livelihood security;Agricultural biodiversity is actively managed by farmers; and many components need human interference;Encompasses indigenous knowledge and culture..
3 Agricultural Biodiversity Agricultural ecosystems, or agroecosystems. Are those where naturally occurring plants and animals are replaced by crop plants and livestock animals deliberately selected by human beings.
4 Importance of Agricultural Biodiversity Biodiversity in agriculture helps to maintain the services of agroecosystems. Among them:Natural control of pests and diseases: Notably insects and other arthropods as natural enemies of plant herbivores; diversity of crops may also contribute to limit plant disease;Nutrient cycling. Soil biodiversity (soil bacteria, other micro-organisms, earthworms, termites) contributes to maintain and increase soil fertility and its biological activity and promotes nutrient cycling when it incorporates organic matter.
5 Importance of Agricultural Biodiversity Pollination by bees and other insects, some birds, bats and other species. The services of native wild pollinators are estimated in billions of dollars per year in USA.Regulation of hidrological processes: Soils rich in organic matter and biodiversity contribute to water catchment and infiltration, reduction of water runoff and erosion, maintaining water quality, increase water and nutrient retention capacity, recycling of water between the soil and the atmosphere, watershed protection, local climate regulation.Carbon sequestration: by vegetation and crops.Conservation: endangered species and maintenance of local wildlife and habitats.
6 Importance of Agricultural Biodiversity Presence of farmers landraces and traditional animal breeds benefit economy farmers. More adapted to local and adverse conditions, have less requirements, assure food security.Biodiverse agroecosystems are more sustainable and have more capacity to resist adverse conditions as new pests and diseases, drough, climate change. They are more resilient helping to reduce financial risks of the farm.
7 Impacts of Agriculture in Biodiversity Unprecedent agriculture expansion and intensifiction have caused serious impacts on biological diversity:On the genetic variability of the managed plant or animal species;On the natural ecosystems where agriculture takes place (or which it has displaced); andThrough pollution by chemicals or invasive species.
8 Impacts of Agriculture in Biodiversity Agroecosystems cover 28-37% of the surface of the earth, displacing natural habitat and biodiversity.Intensive monocultures with chemical inputs and the use of uniform varieties have caused:Biodiversity loss, loss of pollinators and natural enemies, increase resistance of pests and diseases,Loss of soil microorganisms and fertility,Contamination of water and soil,Land erosion and degradation, nutrient depletion, loss of productivity of the land,Loss of genetic diversity of crops and livestock.
9 Loss of Genetic Diversity FAO estimates that 75% of crop varietieshave been lost during the last 100 years,One third of the domestic livestock races are endangered.The genetic erosion of crops and livestocks threatens food security.Transgenic crops can cause the loss of traditional crops, wild relatives and centers of origin due to genetic contamination.
10 CBD and Agriculture Biodiversity The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Biosafety Protocol do not mention agricultural biodiversity per se.However the CBD in its 3 objectives set in Article 1:“the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilisation of genetic resources,provides a legally binding framework for the conservation and sustainable use of agricultural biological diversity and the transition towards sustainable agriculture.
11 CBD and Agriculture Biodiversity In Article 6(b) provides the legal basis for focusing on sectoral issues such as agricultural diversity, forests, among others.Agriculture biodiversity is linked to a number of items of the CBD such as in situ conservation (art. 8), ex situ conservation (art. 9), sustainable use (art. 10), access to genetic resources and benefit sharing (art.15), protection of traditional knowledge (art. 8j), intellectual property rights (art. 16), transgenic crops (art. 8g).
12 CBD and Agriculture Biodiversity The COP of the CBD has recognized that agriculture biodiversity contain vital elements to satisfy food needs and food security. Has emphasized the need for a worldwide reorientation towards sustainable agriculture (Decisión 4/6).COP has addressed conservation and sustainable use of pollinator biodiversity, soil biodiversity, biodiversity for food and nutrition (domesticated and wild species), Terminator seeds. Has supported FAO Initiative of the Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources and the Report of the Global State of Animal Genetic Resources.
13 Biosafety ProtocolThe Biosafety Protocol was signed in 2000 and entered into force in It addresses the growing concern about the potential health, environmental and socio-economic risks posed by genetically engineered crops and food.The objective is to contribute to ensuring an adequate level of protection in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, and specifically focusing on transboundary movements.
14 Biosafety ProtocolThe Protocol has advanced in measures related to the shipments of LMOs for direct liberation to the environment (seeds, fish), for commercial use as food, feed or processing (commodity grains) and for contained use.Documentation requirement of shipments, liability and redress in cases of contamination, compliance.