Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Organizing and Writing Business Messages."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 5 Organizing and Writing Business Messages
Chapter 5 Formal Research Methods Accessing information on the Internet and in databases Searching manually in books, articles, and other secondary sources Primary research, such as using interviews and surveys Experimenting scientifically
Chapter 5 Informal Research Methods Searching in company files Talking to supervisor/coworkers Interviewing target audience Conducting informal survey Brainstorming for ideas
Chapter 5 Using Cluster Diagrams to Generate, Organize, & Classify Ideas Identify topic to be researched Write down any related idea that comes to mind Join related items with lines
Chapter 5 Organizing Ideas in a Cluster Diagram Analyze ideas generated in development of cluster diagram Cross out ideas that are irrelevant; simplify & clarify Add new ideas if appropriate Study the ideas for similarities Group similar ideas into classifications Prepare an outline Make sub-cluster circles around each classification for further visualization
Chapter 5 Tips for Outlining Define the main topic (purpose of message) in the title Divide the main topic into major components or classifications Break each major component into subpoints Avoid putting a single item under a major component Make each component exclusive (no overlapping) Use details, illustrations, and evidence to support subpoints
Chapter 5 Group Ideas into Patterns Receptive audiences (use direct pattern) Will audience be pleased? Will audience be mildly interested? Will audience be neutral? Unreceptive audiences (use indirect pattern) Will audience be displeased or disappointed? Will audience be uninterested? Will audience be hostile?
Chapter 5 Creating Effective Sentences Recognize phrases and clauses Clauses have subjects and verbs; phrases do not Independent clauses are complete; dependent clauses are not Independent clause: They were eating pizza. Phrases and dependent clauses cannot function as sentences Dependent clause: that they want Phrase: for a refund
Chapter 5 Creating Effective Sentences Avoid fragments (incomplete sentences) Fragment: E-mail seems boring. When compared with Twitter. Revision: E-mail seems boring when compared with Twitter. Avoid run-on sentences (a sentence with two independent clauses but without a coordinating conjunction or semicolon) Run-on: He posts updates hourly he’s always connected. Revision: He posts updates hourly; he’s always connected. Revision: He posts updates hourly, and he’s always connected. Revision: He posts updates hourly. He’s always connected.
Chapter 5 Creating Effective Sentences Avoid comma splices (joining two independent clauses without using a coordinating conjunction) Splice: Her BlackBerry is part of her, she can’t live without it. Revision: Her BlackBerry is part of her; she can’t live without it. Revision: Her BlackBerry is part of her. She can’t live without it. Revision: Her BlackBerry is part of her, and she can’t live without it.
Chapter 5 Use Short Sentences Sentence LengthComprehension Rate 8 words100% 15 words90% 19 words80% 28 words50% Sentences under 20 words are most readable.
Chapter 5 Creating Effective Sentences Emphasize the most important ideas by using vivid words (preciseness) Emphasize the main idea by labeling it Emphasize the most important idea by placing it first or last in a sentence Emphasize the most important idea by placing it in a simple sentence or in an independent clause Emphasize the most important idea by making sure it is the subject of the sentence
Chapter 5 Creating Effective Sentences Use active-voice verbs for most sentences We lost money. John hit the ball. Use passive-voice verbs to de-emphasize the performer or to be tactful Money was lost. The ball was hit by John. Use active voice for directness, vigor, and clarity Use passive voice to be tactful or to emphasize the action rather than the doer.
Chapter 5 Creating Effective Sentences Avoid misplaced modifiers by keeping phrases close to the words they describe Avoid dangling modifiers (a word or phrase that modifies a word not clearly stated in the sentence)
Chapter 5 Drafting Effective Paragraphs Use the direct paragraph plan to define, classify, illustrate, or describe Topic sentence, supporting sentences Topic sentence, limiting sentence, supporting sentences Use the pivoting paragraph plan to compare and contrast Limiting sentences, topic sentence, supporting sentences Use the indirect paragraph plan to explain and persuade Supporting sentences, topic sentence
Chapter 5 Building Paragraph Coherence Sustaining the key idea Repeating or using similar words/expressions to drive home a point Dovetailing sentences Connecting ideas from one sentence to the next Using pronouns Help build continuity; avoid unnecessary repetition; make message more interesting Including transitional expressions Connect ideas from one paragraph to the next Use short paragraphs to improve readability