Presentation on theme: "Cuban Missile Crisis and the Space Race. Warm-up During the Cold War there was a constant fear in the United States of Soviet invasion. If you were President."— Presentation transcript:
Warm-up During the Cold War there was a constant fear in the United States of Soviet invasion. If you were President Truman or Eisenhower (1948-1960) how would you try to prepare for attack?
Vocabulary Deterrent- something that discourages actions or prevents occurrences by instilling fear or doubt Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)- the idea that two sides with nuclear weapons could destroy each other if any nuclear attack was to take place.
Arms Race Once the United States and Soviet Union both had nuclear weapons they began an arms race to produce weapons quickly in order to stay ahead of the other nation. They were afraid that if they fell behind the other nation would attack so they continued to build nuclear bombs. The weapons were used as a deterrent to make sure neither country attacked the other.
Effects of the Arms Race The Arms race frightened many people and families built underground bomb shelters. Children practiced emergency “duck-and- cover” drills at school Some American groups protested the arms race. They argued the nuclear weapons tests were dangerous and unnecessary.
Space Race The arms race led to a belief in both the United States and Soviet Union that space could be used as a point of attack. In October of 1957 the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite into orbit. Americans worried that the Soviets now had a military advantage so in January 1958 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was formed. The United States did not take the lead in the Space Race until July of 1969 when Apollo 11 landed on the moon.
Effects of the Space Race Increased focus on Math and Science in public schools. Officials hoped that better-educated students would help the nation win the arms and space races.
The age of Kennedy In 1960 John F. Kennedy was elected President of the United States. He had a different foreign policy idea called flexible response. This meant that he wanted to give the U.S. more options than humiliation or all-out war. He increased conventional weapons like tanks. He also used “counter-insurgency” troops that would lead secret missions to weaken communist movements in other countries.
United States and Cuba In 1959 Fidel Castro, a communist revolutionary, overthrew the unpopular Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista. Batista had been supported by the United States. With Cuba located just 90 miles South of the United States many Americans were worried that the Soviet Union would use it to spread Communism to the US
Bay of Pigs In April 1961 the U.S. government helped 1500 Cuban exiles invade the island of Cuba. The exiles waded ashore at the Bay of Pigs on the southwest coast of Cuba. The exiles were quickly attacked by Castro’s forces and the whole situation ended up being a disaster. After three days all the invaders had been captured or killed.
Aftermath The U.S. government did not send U.S. military support and Castro stayed firmly in power. Kennedy accepted blame for the failed administration but it reflected poorly on the president and his government.
Cuban Missile Crisis Beginning in 1961 the Soviet Union sent increasing numbers of military personnel to Cuba. In the summer of 1962, the Soviets started giving Cuba missiles. In mid-October spy planes took pictures of the Soviets installing nuclear weapons in Cuba.
Cuban Missile Crisis On October 22 nd, Kennedy made a speech demanding the Soviet Union remove the missiles. He also said if any missile was fired in the Western Hemisphere, the U.S would attack the Soviet Union. Finally, he ordered the U.S. Navy to surround Cuba and prevent Soviet ships from bringing in more missiles.
The Standoff Soviet Ships continued to head toward Cuba. People around the world were watching as the Soviet Union and the United States were on the brink of a nuclear war. At the very last moment the Soviets turned back their ships and Kennedy and Khrushchev came together to compromise
The Compromise The Soviet Union removed their missiles from Cuba. The U.S. agreed not to invade Cuba and to remove some of its missiles in Italy and Turkey. They also established a “hot line”, a direct phone line from the Kremlin to the White House so the two leaders could talk at a moment’s notice.
Your turn Your going to read the Cuban Missile Crisis simulatation sheet. Fill out the graphic organizer and then decide what you would have done had you been President Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Exit Slip Complete the Exit Slip and get your tracking sheet signed before you leave.