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Chromosomes are made of DNA.

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Presentation on theme: "Chromosomes are made of DNA."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chromosomes are made of DNA.
Portions of DNA that code for a trait are genes. Homologous chromosomes have alleles (different versions) of the same genes. Alleles are dominant or recessive.

3 Draw and use Punnett Squares.
Understand the difference between homozygous and heterozygous. KEY WORDS Genotype Phenotype Homozygous Heterozygous Punnett Square

4 The way a person looks (the traits they show) is called their phenotype – can be observed (seen).
Black, brown eyes… The genes that code for a trait are called a persons genotype - not directly observable. 2 brown alleles for eyes, 1 black and 1 blonde allele for hair colour… A genetic test is required to find out your genotype.

5 R RR R r r r R Genotype refers to the alleles of a person's DNA.
Phenotype is how the alleles are expressed - what you look like as a result. Capital letters represent a dominant allele. Lower case represents a recessive allele. Three possibilities: R - from dad (sperm) RR R r r r R - from mom (egg)

6 bb – person has two recessive alleles for eyes.
Genotype – bb Phenotype – blue eyes BB – person has two dominant alleles for eyes. Genotype – BB Phenotype – Brown eyes Bb – person has one dominant and one recessive. Genotype – Bb Phenotype – Brown eyes

7 A person with two different alleles is called
Having the same allele on both homologous chromosomes is called homozygous – for that trait. A person with two different alleles is called heterozygous – for that trait. Homozygous for a trait is also called “purebred” Heterozygous is called “hybrid”

8 bb BB Bb Genotype – homozygous recessive. Phenotype – blue eyes
Genotype – homozygous dominant. Phenotype – brown eyes Bb Genotype – heterozygous. Phenotype – blue eyes

9 You must know the genotypes of both parents
Punnett squares: Shows the possible combinations of alleles from parents when they are crossed (fertilization). Used to predict the genotype and phenotype of any offspring. You must know the genotypes of both parents

10 1. State the genotypes for each parent.
Eye Size: Father = Ee (heterozygous big eyes) Mother = ee (homozygous small eyes) 2. Draw Punnett square and place the parents at the top and the left side of the square. 3. Complete the square by combining the possible genes from each parent in each square.

11 E e e e E e e e E e e e Father = Ee Mother = ee
½ offspring will have Big – 50% E e e e ½ offspring will have small – 50% E e e e

12 A father (heterozygous for Brown eyes), wants to have children with a homozygous blue eyed mother. What are the chances of a blue eyed baby? Father = Bb Mother = bb B b b b B b b b ½ offspring will have blue eyes. 50% chance. B b b b

13 We’re looking at the heredity of ONE gene on ONE homologous pair from parent to offspring.
B b B b

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