Published byMildred Watson Modified over 8 years ago
Types of Sentences Declarative makes a statement and ends with a period. Interrogative asks a question and ends with a question mark Imperative makes a command or request & ends with a period Exclamatory expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point
Subjects & Predicates Subject: tells whom or what the sentence is about. Predicate: tells what the subject is, does, has or feels Includes Verb Every cloud |has a silver lining People in America | eat three meals a day.
Simple Predicate: verb or verb phrase telling what the subject does
Simple Subject: the key words or words that the sentence is about (usually noun or pronoun) Oil is a peanut product. Carver’s discoveries made peanuts important. Simple Predicate: verb or verb phrase telling what the subject does Peanuts have been important for years. We have often wondered about their origin. Peanut crop pests must be controlled.
Finding the Subject Many sentences are in a natural order
Subject->Predicate The Mad Hatter came out of the woods. The bird flew into the tree. 2. Sometimes, they can be in inverted order. Predicate->Subject Out of the woods came the Mad Hatter. Into the tree flew a bird.
“WHERE ON THESE MAPS IS BRAZIL
“WHERE ON THESE MAPS IS BRAZIL?” Interrogative Sentences are usually inverted order. To find a subject, try arranging the words into their natural order.
Compound Subjects & Predicates
Compound Subject: 2+ simple subjects that have the same predicate - Marie and Sam arrived late. Compound Predicate: 2+ simple predicates with the same subject Sara went to jazzercise and then went to the mall. Molly went to jazzercise but was too tired to go to the mall.
Forming Compound Subjects and Predicates
You can make your writing more concise by creating compound subjects & predicates. Example: My best friend makes me laugh. My best friend gives me advice too. My best friend makes me laugh and gives me advice. Sara attended the school dance. Her little brother went too. Sara and her little brother went to the school dance.
Compound Sentences A simple sentence expresses one complete idea.
A simple sentence can have a compound subject, compound predicate, or both. Mary and Sam fought a lot but eventually made up. A compound sentence expresses two or more ideas that are related and are equal in importance. The two clauses will be connected with a conjunction (and, but, or or) OR, you can join two separate sentences with a semicolon (;) Our English class is hard and the homework never ends! Our English class is hard; the homework never ends!
Conjunctions “A word that joins words or groups of words” Coordinating Conjunction: connects related words that have the same function and but or nor for yet so Correlative Conjunction: pairs of conjunctions that connect related word groups Either…or Not only… but (also) Neither…nor Whether… or Both… and Just as… so
Complex Sentences Clause: group of words that has a subject and predicate Independent Clause + Independent Clause= Compound Sentence A clause that does not express a complete thought is a dependent or subordinate clause. Independent Clause + Subordinate Clause = Complex Sentence When a tree matures, it bears fruit.
Subordinate Clauses A subordinate clause can come at the beginning or end of a sentence. If it begins a sentence ALWAYS USE A COMMA AFTER IT. If it is at the end of a sentence DO NOT USE A COMMA When you go to the library, read about trees. Read about trees when you go to the library. Subordinating Conjunctions: often used to introduce subordinate clause (p. 58 has a list of Sub. Conj.)
Forming Complex Sentences
To make your writing better, use a subordinating conjunction to connect two simple sentences. All trees produce sap. Not all sap produces syrup. All trees produce sap, although not all sap produces syrup. We did the work. She talked to her partner. She talked to her partner while we did the work. Be sure to use a variety of subordinating conjunctions. Also, be sure to use the CORRECT subordinating conjunction, as they can express different meaning.
Run-Ons and Fragments Fragment: does not have both a subject & predicate or does not express a complete thought But we wanted to! The teacher told us not to, but we wanted to! Run-On: consists of two or more sentences that are run together with commas or without any punctuation Dean looked, he didn’t see the flashlight appeared from nowhere.
To Fix a Run-On Divide it into separate sentences
Dean looked. He didn’t see the flashlight. 2) Rewrite it as a compound sentence, using a comma and a coordinating conjunction. Dean looked, but he didn’t see the flashlight. 3) Rewrite it as a complex sentence, using a a subordinating conjunction. Although Dean looked, he didn’t see the flashlight. When he looked again, the flashlight appeared from nowhere.
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