Presentation on theme: "UNIT 1 - Information Short term exercising or playing sport causes changes to take place in the body. Some of these changes are visible, many are not."— Presentation transcript:
1 UNIT 1 - InformationShort term exercising or playing sport causes changes to take place in the body.Some of these changes are visible, many are not.When the body is working it needs to transport more fuel and 02 to the working muscles and take away waste products more quickly.The changes that take place depend on:1) The intensity of exercise2) The duration of the exercise
2 Short-Term or Immediate Effects of Exercise UNIT 1 - InformationShort-Term or Immediate Effects of ExerciseHeart rate increases to provide O2 + nutrients = Energy (Release of Adrenaline helps increase HR)Cardiac output increases – Output per Minute.Stroke Volume Increases – Output per heartbeat.Blood flow is faster and re-distributed to working muscles.More O2 reaches muscles and more CO2 removed.Arteries dilate (widen) to maintain Blood Pressure.The skin reddens as blood moves to the surface of the skin to help lose heat through Radiation and prevent overheating.The body sweats more than normal, (the body temperature rises) the body heat generated by exercise makes the sweat evaporate which helps to cool the body down.Respiratory rate increases to provide O2 and remove CO2 – how many breaths per minute.
3 Short -Term or Immediate Effects of Exercise UNIT 1 - InformationShort -Term or Immediate Effects of ExerciseMinute volume increases – volume of air breathed in and out in one minute.Capacity to transport and use O2 increases – VO2 MaxGaseous exchange becomes more efficient as more O2 is released into the muscles and more CO2 is removed.May become tired (Fatigued) – links with Glucose stores.May have aching muscles.May become prone to injury.May become stressed.
4 Long-Term Benefits of Exercise UNIT 1 - InformationLong-Term Benefits of ExerciseRegular training results in ADAPTATIONS of our bodies.This is the reason for training.The TYPE of training carried out determines what adaptations take place.Heart becomesstronger and largercontracts withgreater forceIncreased strokeVolume – pumpsless timesRecovery rateimprovesLower restingheart rateIncrease in red bloodcells more 02 transportedCardio-VascularEffectsQuantity and quality ofblood increasesArteries larger and moreElastic – blood pressurereducedGreater tolerance toLactic acidIncreased numberof capillaries
5 become stronger - diaphragm UNIT 1 - InformationLong-Term Benefits of ExerciseBreathing becomesmore efficientRespiratory musclesbecome stronger - diaphragmMore O2less fatigueImproved lungcapacityCardio - RespiratoryEffectsVO2 increasesMore efficientgaseous exchangeVital capacityincreasesMore O2 into thebloodstream andmore CO2 out.
6 Long-Term Benefits of Exercise UNIT 1 - InformationLong-Term Benefits of ExerciseAerobic energy systemsbecome more efficientMuscles becomestrongerMuscles hypertrophyincrease in sizeMuscles store largeramounts of glycogenMuscle strengthand endurance increaseCartilage thickensMuscular / skeletalEffectsJoints becomemore stableStronger tendons/ ligamentsBetter muscle toneTraining thresholdschange asfitness improvesFlexibility at jointsincreasesBone width anddensity increasesIncreased numberof mitochondriaMuscle fibresincrease in sizeIncrease in abilityto utilise fat stores
7 Links with performance:- UNIT 1 - InformationLinks Between Long-term effects of training and performance in physical activityCandidate should be able to use their knowledge of the systems of the body, training methods and long term adaptations of training to make the links:Below are some examples that can be made, but they will vary according to the identified needs of the performer-Links with performance:-Recovery ratesHeart copes with stress/stroke volumeLactic acid toleranceIncreased amount of O2 going to working muscles helps reduce the effects of fatigue…
8 UNIT 1 - InformationLinks Between Long-term effects of training and performance in physical activity….Muscle hypertrophyMuscle strengthV02 max implications – high VO2 max means people can work at a higher rate for longer – suffer less fatigue.Anaerobic threshold increases – work harder and longer before tiring.Ligaments – flexibility links.CO2 removal from strenuous work – because it reduces ability to carry O2 in the blood.
9 Recovering from exercise UNIT 1 - InformationRecovering from exerciseWhen you stop exercising, it takes time for your body to return back to its normal resting state. This is to help clear the waste products of exercise, such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid.Your heart rate will slowly fall. The fitter you are, the quicker it will return to normal.Breathing rate will slowly return to normal, your body needs extra oxygen following exercise to help get rid of lactic acid.It can take up to 48 hours to replenish your stores of glycogen.Muscles often suffer small micro tears during exercise and need to be repaired over the next 48 hours.Overall, the amount of time your body takes to recover will depend on how fit you are and how hard the exercise was!
10 Recovering from exercise UNIT 1 - InformationRecovering from exerciseStartexerciseStopexerciseThis graph shows the difference between the heart rate of a fit person who exercises regularly and someone who does not exercise. You can see the following:The fit person has a lower resting heart rate, before they exerciseThe fit person’s heart rate rises more slowlyThe maximum heart rate reached by the fit person is a lot lower than the unfit person.The fit person’s heart rate drops quicker when they finish exercise.The heart rate of the fit person returns to their resting heart rate in a quicker time.
11 Long Term adaptations will only be noticed after a period of training. UNIT 1 – Practical ApplicationLong Term adaptations will only be noticed after a period of training.Perhaps a HRF module – 8/10 weeks –Identifying a needCarrying out a training programme to satisfy the needMonitoring adaptationsEvaluation process against set goals
12 UNIT 1 – Practical Application Long term changes/ effects to the body as a result of exercise, for example:Fitness testing by the groupData recorded as a result of testingImprovement targets set and monitored over a period of timeLinking training zones and the overall effects on fitness, health and well beingShort and longer term analysis of data along with ICT resources to consider cardio-respiratory and cardio-vascular changes
13 Short term effects of exercise are a little easier to identify:- UNIT 1 – Practical ApplicationShort term effects of exercise are a little easier to identify:-Set up sessions of physical activity and observe the immediate changes that occur.Short term changes/ effects to the body during exercise, for example;Pupils lead a warm up for a specific activityPupils introduce and develop a skill micro sessionHeart rate monitoring taking place during each phase of the sessionObservation, analysis and discussion of the visible effects/ changes taking place
14 UNIT 1 - Links Energy systems Intensity/ Duration of Exercise Identified needs – Sporting performance/ Healthy LifestyleSkeletal systemRespiratory systemMuscular systemCardio-Vascular systemTraining principlesTraining methodsAerobic/ Anaerobic zones and thresholdsFuel for exercise
15 UNIT 1 - ActivityDuring vigorous exercise the following change can take place in the body:The heart beats fasterBreathing becomes heavierSweating occursSkin reddensExplain why these changes help the body to cope with the demands of vigorous exercise.“During strenuous sporting activity visible and immediate changes to the body can take place.”Describe 3 visible and immediate changes that can take place to the body during strenuous sporting activity.
16 UNIT 1 - Activity Identify four-long term effects of training. Explain how long-term training can help to improve performance in a named sporting activity.Name of sporting activity…
17 UNIT 1 - Activity“Taking part in sporting activity makes the body respond by changing both immediately and adapting over time to the level of activity.”a) Outline four short-term effects of exercise on the body.b) Describe four long-term benefits for health and physical fitness oflong-term training.Give two long-term effects of aerobic exercise on the body and explain how each can help to improve performance.Answer the question by completing the table below.Long term effect of aerobic exerciseExplain how each can help to improve performance:1)2)
18 UNIT 1 – Key Facts/ Glossary Body at workNeed for O2 and removal of wasteEnergyShort-term effectsLong-term effectsSweating – Raised body temperatureMuscle hypertrophyMuscular strength and endurance improveIncreased heart rateJoints more stable, flexibility improvesStronger tendons ligamentsIncreased breathing rateBone width + density increaseSkins reddensHeart muscles increases in size + strengthAching jointsFatigueCardiac output increasesLower resting HR + quicker recovery rateStressIncreased volume of bloodIncreased strength of diaphragmDiffusion rate is greaterIncrease in vital capacityVO2 increasesMore efficient gaseous exchangeImproved lung capacity