2 What you will learn about Respiration 2What you will learn aboutin this topic:How exercise affects breathingAerobic respirationAnaerobic respirationOxygen debt
3 Respiration 3Learning objectivesBy the end of this presentation you should be able to:Understand what respiration isDescribe the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respirationExplain how each type of respiration works
4 Respiration 4RespirationRespiration is when exercise causes muscles to release energy in the form of glucose.Both aerobic and anaerobic respiration convert glucose into energy.
5 Respiration 5The body can use both types of respiration depending on the intensity of the exercise.
6 Respiration 7The amount of oxygen taken in can increase. The limit to the increase is called the VO2 maximum.During exercise, the vital capacity will increase because of the demand for greater intake of air. Both the residual volume and the tidal volume increase only slightly.
7 Respiration 8Aerobic respirationDuring aerobic respiration your heart and lungs work to supply the muscles with oxygen.The aerobic system is used in moderate to hard continuous activities.
8 glucose + oxygen = CO2 + H2O + energy Respiration 9The equation for respiration is:glucose + oxygen =CO2 + H2O + energy
9 Respiration 10As long as enough oxygen is supplied to the muscles you can use the aerobic system.
10 Anaerobic respiration During anaerobic respiration the muscles are NOT supplied with oxygen.glucose + NO oxygenlactic acid + energyUsain Bolt
11 Athletic field events are good examples of anaerobic exercise. Respiration 12Athletic field events are good examples of anaerobic exercise.These activities use one all-out burst of maximum effort to complete the event; the time it takes to complete the attempt is very short.
12 Lactic acid http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BqBerM9FPwA Lactic acid is a poison. It builds up slowly during exercise that is up to 75% of maximum work rate. During higher intensity work it builds up much more quickly.Lactic acid can also occur when glycogen stores begin to run low in the muscles after prolonged exercise.After a while lactic acid makes the muscles ache. It will eventually cause cramp and the muscles will stop working. Athletes need to rest while the blood brings fresh supplies of oxygen.
13 Oxygen debt After Anaerobic respiration Our body then needs to recover and take on oxygen before the muscles can work properly again.The repayment comes in the form of gasping breaths at the end of an activity. This is to enable as much oxygen as possible to get back into the respiratory system and to get rid of as much of the waste product as possible (lactic Acid). Definition Oxygen debt – the amount of oxygen needed to get the body back to its resting rate
14 The effect of lifestyle on the cardiovascular system. When athletes train it is really important for them to allow time to rest so the body can repair and recover. This is particularly important after cardiovascular training sessions. Rest allows the heart to grow and thicken in size and allows the capillary network to grow. When you start training you should allow the body one day rest after a cardiovascular training session. As you get fitter and stronger you can reduce the amount of rest days a week you need.
15 Damage to the cardiovascular system High cholesterolRecreational drugsSedentary lifestyle and lack of exerciseStressYour body needs cholesterol but there are 2 typesBad - Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) - to much can clog up your arteries and put strain on your cardiovascular sytem.Good - High-density lipoprotein (HDL) - helps keep arteries clear and break down LDL's. Can be increased with exercising.Eating foods that are high in fat increases your cholesterol intake. Although your body needs fat you should keep track of the fat you consume and try to have god fats instead of low bad fats.
16 Recreational drugsAlcohol and Nicotine increase blood pressureSedentary lifestyle and lack of exerciseIf you do not exercise you do not get the benefits that exercise have on the cardiovascular system. Also lack of exercise can be linked to gaining weight as calories are not burnt off with exercise. Stress On going stress in every day life has a negative affect on your cardiovascular system as it increases resting heart rate and raises blood pressure.
17 Respiration 15Working togetherBoth the aerobic and anaerobic respiration systems work together.For the first part of an activity the body tends to work in an anaerobic way until the body has had a chance to process and use the oxygen it is breathing in.The aerobic system then takes over for activities lasting longer than a minute.
18 Respiration 16TaskWith a partner, make a list of the positive and negative effects of aerobic and anaerobic training on performance.For each effect add a detailed sporting example.
19 Short-term effects on exercise Respiration 17Short-term effects on exerciseBlood flow reduced to areas not in useTidal volume increasesFatigue in musclesOxygen debtGaseous exchange in alveoliAerobic respiration
20 Stroke volume increases as the heart sends out more blood per beat Respiration 18Stroke volume increases as the heart sends out more blood per beatAir exhaled to stop build up of carbon dioxideHeart beat increasesWaste water released from the body as sweat on surface of the skinRelease of energyAdrenaline released
21 Long-term effects on exercise Respiration 19Long-term effects on exerciseEndurance training makes the exchange of gases in the alveoli more efficient.The muscles are able to work at a moderate to hard level for longer without tiring, which increases the vital capacity of the lungs.
22 The overall effect is called an oxygen debt tolerance. Respiration 20Interval training over short distances at fast speeds results in an oxygen debt.By continuing this form of training new capillaries are formed, heart muscles are strengthened and the delivery of oxygen is improved, helping to stop the build up of lactic acid.The overall effect is called an oxygen debt tolerance.
23 Respiration 21Exam questionsWhat are the two energy production systems used by the body when taking part in sport?What sports does aerobic respiration help most effectively? Give two examples.Teacher’s notesQ1Aerobic and anaerobic respiration.Q2Students should provide suitable sporting examples that link to stamina and longer duration activities such as marathon runners.
24 What you have learnt in this topic: Respiration 22What you have learntin this topic:How exercise affects breathingAerobic respirationAnaerobic respirationOxygen debt
25 Learning objectives You should now be able to: Respiration 23Learning objectivesYou should now be able to:Understand what respiration isDescribe the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respirationExplain how each type of respiration works