Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Table of Contents Section 1 Biodiversity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 17 Table of Contents Section 1 Biodiversity Classification of OrganismsChapter 17Table of ContentsSection 1 BiodiversitySection 2 SystematicsSection 3 Modern Classification
2 Section 1 BiodiversityChapter 17ObjectivesRelate biodiversity to biological classification.Explain why naturalists replaced Aristotle’s classification system.Identify the main criterion that Linnaeus used to classify organisms.List the common levels of modern classification from general to specific.
3 Classifying Organisms Section 1 BiodiversityChapter 17Classifying OrganismsNaturalists have invented several systems for categorizing biodiversity, which is the variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems.
4 Section 1 BiodiversityChapter 17TaxonomyNaturalists replaced Aristotle’s classification system because it did not adequately cover all organisms and because his use of common names was problematic.Taxonomy is the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms.
5 Chapter 17 Taxonomy, continued The Linnaean System Section 1 BiodiversityChapter 17Taxonomy, continuedThe Linnaean SystemCarolus Linnaeus devised a seven-level hierarchical system for classifying organisms according to their form and structure.From the most general to the most specific,the levels are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family,genus, and species.
6 Classification Hierarchy of Organisms Section 1 BiodiversityChapter 17Classification Hierarchy of Organisms
7 Linnaeus’s Levels of Classification Section 1 BiodiversityChapter 17Linnaeus’s Levels of ClassificationClick below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
8 Levels of Classification Section 1 BiodiversityChapter 17Levels of ClassificationBinomial NomenclatureAn important part of Linnaeus’s system was assigning each species a two-part scientific name—a genus name, such as Homo, and a species identifier, such as sapiens.This system of a two-part name is known as binomial nomenclature.
9 Chapter 17 Objectives Section 2 Systematics Identify the kinds of evidence that modern biologists use in classifying organisms.Explain what information a phylogenetic diagram displays.State the criteria used in cladistic analysis.Describe how a cladogram is made.Discuss how proteins and chromosomes are used to classify organisms.Explain cladistic taxonomy, and identify one conclusion that is in conflict with classical taxonomy.
10 Chapter 17 Phylogenetics Section 2 SystematicsChapter 17PhylogeneticsA modern approach to taxonomy is systematics, which analyzes the diversity of organisms in the context of their natural relationships.When classifying organisms, scientists consider fossils, homologous features, embryos, chromosomes, and the sequences of proteins and DNA.
11 Phylogenetics, continued Section 2 SystematicsChapter 17Phylogenetics, continuedA phylogenetic diagram displays how closely related a subset of taxa are thought to be.
12 Chapter 17 Phylogeny Section 2 Systematics Click below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
13 Phylogenetics, continued Section 2 SystematicsChapter 17Phylogenetics, continuedEvidence of Shared AncestryHomologous features as well as similarities in patterns of embryological development provide information about common ancestry.
14 Section 2 SystematicsChapter 17CladisticsCladistics uses shared, derived characters as the only criterion for grouping taxa.
15 Cladogram: Major Groups of Plants Section 2 SystematicsChapter 17Cladogram: Major Groups of Plants
16 Chapter 17 Cladistics, continued Molecular Cladistics Section 2 SystematicsChapter 17Cladistics, continuedMolecular CladisticsMolecular similarities (such as similar amino acid or nucleotide sequences), as well as chromosome comparisons, can help determine common ancestry.
17 Chapter 17 Cladistics, continued Chromosomes Section 2 SystematicsChapter 17Cladistics, continuedChromosomesAnalyzing karyotypes can provide more information on evolutionary relationships.
18 Similarities in Amino Acid Sequences Section 2 SystematicsChapter 17Similarities in Amino Acid Sequences
19 Chapter 17 Cladistics Section 2 Systematics Click below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
20 Phylogenetic Diagram of Mammals Section 2 SystematicsChapter 17Phylogenetic Diagram of Mammals
21 Chapter 17 Objectives Section 3 Modern Classification Describe the evidence that prompted the invention of the three-domain system of classification.List the characteristics that distinguish between the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.Describe the six-kingdom system of classification.Identify problematic taxa in the six-kingdom system.Explain why taxonomic systems continue to change.
22 Chapter 17 The Tree of Life Revising the Tree Section 3 Modern ClassificationChapter 17The Tree of LifeRevising the TreeThe phylogenetic analysis of rRNA nucleotide sequences by Carol Woese led to a new “tree of life” consisting of three domains aligned with six kingdoms.
23 Chapter 17 Three Domains of Life Section 3 Modern ClassificationChapter 17Three Domains of LifeThe three domains are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
24 Three Domains of Life, continued Section 3 Modern ClassificationChapter 17Three Domains of Life, continuedDomain BacteriaDomain Bacteria aligns with Kingdom Eubacteria, which consists of single-celled prokaryotes that are true bacteria.
25 Three Domains of Life, continued Section 3 Modern ClassificationChapter 17Three Domains of Life, continuedDomain ArchaeaDomain Archaea aligns with Kingdom Archaebacteria, which consists of single-celled prokaryotes that have distinctive cell membranes and cell walls.
26 Three Domains of Life, continued Section 3 Modern ClassificationChapter 17Three Domains of Life, continuedDomain EukaryaDomain Eukarya includes the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.All members of this domain have eukaryotic cells.
27 Phylogenetic Diagram of Major Groups of Organisms Section 3 Modern ClassificationChapter 17Phylogenetic Diagram of Major Groups of Organisms
28 Section 3 Modern Classification Chapter 17Six Kingdoms
29 Kingdom and Domain Characteristics Section 3 Modern ClassificationChapter 17Kingdom and Domain Characteristics