4 Human Central Nervous System Starts as a hollow tube in the embryo;Remains hollow & fluid-filled throughout life;These spaces form the ventricles of the brain and thecentral canal of the spinal cord.Cranial end of this hollow tube enlarges & folds to formbrain and its various partsCaudal end of this hollow tube does not enlarge or fold;Develops into spinal cord
9 More terms you need to know for brain and spinal cord Nervous tissue of the CNS consisting of neuron cell bodies, their supporting glia, and unmyelinated axons & dendrites.Nervous tissue of the CNS consisting of myelinated axons & dendrites and their supporting gliaA region of gray matter on the surface of thebrain (found only on the cerebrum and cerebellum)A deeper region of gray mattter, surroundedby white matter
10 Coronal Section of Brain Cross Section of Spinal Cord
12 The brain has seven major (and many minor) regions: CerebrumThalamusHypothalamusMidbrainPonsCerebellumMedulla OblongataLet’s discuss each of these briefly.
13 Thalamus develops from diencephalon Most nuclei are relay centers:Receive sensory informationfrom spinal cord, other regionsof brain, eyes, ears, tongue,nasal epithelium.Relay that to sensory regionsof cerebral cortexSome nuclei relay motorinformation from cerebral cortexto other regions of brainSome nuclei regulate sleep/wakefulness
14 Hypothalamus develops from diencephalon Some nuclei regulate bodytemperature, blood pressure,hunger, thirst, fatigue.Some nuclei regulate endocrine(hormone) functions bycontrolling activity of pituitarygland (to which it isconnected)
15 Midbrain develops from mesencephalon Often still called that.Some nuclei regulate eyemovement & visual reflexes.Large tracts of white matter(myelinated axons) passthrough, carrying motorinformation from cerebralmotor cortex toward otherparts of brain and spinal cord.Some nuclei modify that information to regulate motor functions.Large tracts of white matter pass through, carrying sensory information from spinal cord toward thalamus.
16 Pons develops from metencephalon Some nuclei relay signalsbetween cerebrum andcerebellum.Some nuclei help regulate sleep,respiration, swallowing, taste,hearing, bladder control,equilibrium, eye movement,facial expressions, facialsensation, and posture.Motor information from cerebral cortex (white matter) continuestoward medulla oblongata and spinal cord; sensoryinformation continues from the medulla oblongata and spinalcord toward the thalamus and toward the cerebellum.
17 Cerebellum develops from metencephalon Nuclei and cortex receive bothmotor information (fromcerebral cortex and nucleiof other parts of brain) andsensory information spinalcord and other parts of thebrain. Uses that informationto coordinate and fine-tunemovement, particularly timingand precision.White matter carries that information to and from nuclei and cortex.
18 Medulla Oblongata develops from myelencephalon Some nuclei help regulaterespiration, heart rate, bloodpressure, blood distribution.Other nuclei regulate vomiting,coughing, sneezing,swallowing.White matter carries motorinformation from other regionsof brain to spinal cord, and sensory information from spinalcord to other regions of brain.
19 CerebrumArises from the telencephalonConsists of right and left hemispheres separated from each other by theEach hemisphere is hollow, containing a which is lined by ependyma and filled with cerebrospinal fluid
20 Each hemisphere Includes both white matter and gray matter: CerebrumEach hemisphere Includes both white matter and gray matter:Coronal Section
21 Cerebral CortexGray Matter2 - 4 mm thickFolded into ridges, or (singular: ) separated byshallow grooves, or (singular = )Different parts of brain separated by deep
23 Cerebral CortexEach gyrus, sulcus, and fissure has a name (more than 50 gyri & sulci)
24 Cerebral CortexEach gyrus, sulcus, and fissure has a nameYou don't need to know all of themYou will need to know the following:Longitudinal FissureCentral SulcusPrecentral GyrusPostcentral GyrusLateral Fissure/SulcusParietooccipital Sulcus
25 Cerebral CortexDifferent regions of the cortex have specific functionsThree types of functional areas:MotorSensoryAssociation
26 Cerebral CortexDifferent regions of the cortex have specific functionsFrom your reading and lab exercises, you should know the functions of the following areas and where they are located:Primary somatosensory areaSomatosensory association areaPrimary motor areaMotor association areaPrimary visual areaVisual association cortexPrimary auditory areaAuditory association areaQuestions on these may be on lecture and/or lab exams
27 Cerebral CortexDifferent regions of the cortex have specific functionsTwo regions of cortex important in language:deals with formation of speechdeals with recognition and interpretation of speechBoth located primarily onjust one hemisphere(usually the left).Similar regions on other hemisphere control emotional content of speech.
28 Gray matter forms both: CerebrumRecall::Gray matter forms both:CortexBasal NucleiCoronal Section
29 Cerebral NucleiNot shown:Basal or Deep or Cerebral Nuclei
30 From your reading and lab exercises, you should also know the locations of the - Lateral ventricles- Interventricularforamen- Third ventricle- Fourth ventricle- Mesencephalicaquaduct- Median aperture- Lateral aperturesQuestions on these may be on lecture and/or lab exams
31 Brain is surrounded by three layers of connective tissue: (Skull)SpaceMater
32 The brain is protected in three ways: 1)2)3) Floats in
33 Cerebrospinal fluid produced within ventricles by specialized tissue called Flows toward fourth ventricleExits from fourth ventricle through three openings (apertures or foramina) into the subarachnoid space.TwoSurrounds brain & spinal cord.Reabsorbed into bloodthrough arachnoid villi on surface of brain