2 The entire nervous system can be divided into two parts: 1- Central nervous system (CNS)includes the brain and spinal cord2- Peripheral nervous system (PNS), which consists of:Cranial nervesspinal nerves
4 Central Nervous System BrainThe gross subdivisions of the adult brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem.The cerebrum develops from the embryonic Telencephalon.The components of the brainstem are defined in a number of waysinclude the diencephalon, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
5 Cerebrum comprises:the two cerebral hemispheres, including the cerebral cortex, the basal nucleiThe surface area of the cerebrum in domestic mammals is increased by numerous foldings to form convex ridges, called gyri (singular gyrus), which are separated by furrows called fissures or sulci.A particularly prominent fissure, the longitudinal fissure, lies on the median plane and separates the cerebrum into its right and left hemispheres.
7 Diencephalon Is a derivative of the prosencephalon. thalamus epithalamushypothalamusthe third ventricle are included in the diencephalon.The thalamus is an important relay center for nerve fibers connecting the cerebral hemispheres to the brainstem and spinal cord.The epithalamus, dorsal to the thalamus, includes a number of structures, the pineal gland, which is an endocrine organ in mammals.The hypothalamus, ventral to the thalamus, surrounds the ventral part of the third ventricle and comprises many nuclei that function in autonomic activities and behavior.Attached to the ventral part of the hypothalamus is the hypophysis, or pituitary gland
9 Mesencephalon The mesencephalon, or midbrain lies between the diencephalon rostrally and the pons caudally.The two cerebral pedunclesfour colliculi are the most prominent features of the midbrain.The cerebral peduncles, also called cruracerebrii, are large bundles of nerve fibers connecting the spinal cord and brainstem to the cerebral hemispheres.These peduncles consist of both sensory and motor fiber tracts.The colliculi are four small bumps (colliculus is Latin for little hill) on the dorsal side of the midbrain.They consist of right and left rostral colliculi and right and left caudal colliculi.The rostral colliculi coordinate certain visual reflexes,The caudal colliculi are relay nuclei for audition (hearing).
11 Metencephalon. The metencephalon includes the cerebellum dorsally and the pons ventrally.The cerebellum features two lateral hemispheres and a median ridge called the vermis.The surface of the cerebellum consists of many laminae called folia. In the cerebellum, like the cerebrum, the white matter is central, and the gray matter is peripheral in the cerebellar cortex.The cerebellum is critical to the accurate timing and execution of movements; it acts to smooth and coordinate muscle activity.The pons is ventral to the cerebellum, and its surface possesses visible transverse fibers that form a bridge from one hemisphere of the cerebellum to the other.
13 MyelencephalonThe myelencephalon becomes the medulla oblongata in the adult.It is the cranial continuation of the spinal cordThe medulla oblongata (often simply called the medulla) contains a number of important autonomic centers and nuclei for cranial nerves.
14 Ventricular System.The ventricles of the brain are the remnants of the lumen of the embryonic neural tube.Right and left lateral ventricles lie within the respective cerebral hemispheres.They communicate with the midline third ventricle by way of the interventricular foramina.Most of the third ventricle is surrounded by the diencephalon.The third ventricle connects with the fourth ventricle by way of the mesencephalic aqueduct (cerebral aqueduct) passing through the midbrain.The fourth ventricle, between the cerebellum above and pons and medulla below, communicates with the subarachnoid space surrounding the CNS through two lateral apertures.
16 Each ventricle features a choroid plexus a tuft of blood capillaries that protrudes into the lumen of the ventricle.The plexus of capillaries is covered by a layer of ependymal cells that are continuous with the lining membrane of the ventricles.Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), filling the ventricular system and surrounding the CNS, is formed primarily by the choroid plexuses, with a smaller contribution made by the ependyma lining the ventricles.CSF is a modified transudate, formed primarily through active secretion by the ependymal cells, especially those of the choroid plexuses.
17 MeningesThe coverings of the brain and spinal cord are the meninges (singular meninx).They include, from deep to superficialthe pia materthe arachnoidthe dura mater.The pia mater, the deepest of the meninges, is a delicate membrane that invests the brain and spinal cord, following the grooves and depressions closely. The pia mater forms a sheath around the blood vessels and follows them into the substance of the CNS.
18 Meninges The middle meninx arises embryologically from the same layer as the pia mater but separates from it during development so that a space forms between them.Because of the weblike appearance of these filaments, this middle layer is called the arachnoid (arachnoidea, arachnoid mater).Together, the pia mater and arachnoid constitute the Ieptomeninges (from the Latin word lepto, delicate), reflecting their fine, delicate nature.The space between the two layers is the subarachnoid space.It is filled with CSF.
19 MeningesThe dura mater is the tough fibrous outer covering of the CNS.Within the cranial cavity the dura mater is intimately attached to the inside of the cranial bones and so fulfills the role of periosteum.It also forms the falx cerebri, a median sickle-shaped fold that lies in the longitudinal fissure and partially separates the cerebral hemispheres.Another fold of dura mater, the tentorium cerebelli, runs transversely between the cerebellum and the cerebrum.In some locations within the skull, the dura mater splits into two layers divided by channels filled with blood. These dural sinuses receive blood from the veins of the brain and empty into the jugular veins.They are also the site of reabsorption of CSF back into the circulation.
20 Spinal CordThe spinal cord is the caudal continuation of the medulla oblongata.Unlike that of the cerebrum, the spinal cord’s gray matter is found at the center of the cord, forming a butterfly shape on cross-section.Myelinated fiber tracts, the white matter, surround this core of gray matter.A spinal cord segment is defined by the presence of a pair of spinal nerves.Spinal nerves are formed by the conjoining of dorsal and ventral roots.