More terms you need to know for brain and spinal cord Gray Matter: White Matter: Cortex: Nucleus:
Coronal Section of Brain Cross Section of Spinal Cord
The brain has seven major (and many minor) regions: Let’s discuss each of these briefly.
Thalamus develops from Most nuclei are relay centers: Receive sensory information from spinal cord, other regions of brain, eyes, ears, tongue, nasal epithelium. Relay that to sensory regions of cerebral cortex Some nuclei relay motor information from cerebral cortex to other regions of brain Some nuclei regulate sleep/wakefulness
Hypothalamus develops from Some nuclei regulate body temperature, blood pressure, hunger, thirst, fatigue. Some nuclei regulate endocrine (hormone) functions by controlling activity of pituitary gland (to which it is connected)
Midbrain develops from Often still called that. Some nuclei regulate eye movement & visual reflexes. Large tracts of white matter (myelinated axons) pass through, carrying motor information from cerebral motor cortex toward other parts of brain and spinal cord. Some nuclei modify that information to regulate motor functions. Large tracts of white matter pass through, carrying sensory information from spinal cord toward thalamus.
Pons develops from Some nuclei relay signals between cerebrum and cerebellum. Some nuclei help regulate sleep, respiration, swallowing, taste, hearing, bladder control, equilibrium, eye movement, facial expressions, facial sensation, and posture. Motor information from cerebral cortex (white matter) continues toward medulla oblongata and spinal cord; sensory information continues from the medulla oblongata and spinal cord toward the thalamus and toward the cerebellum.
Cerebellum develops from Nuclei and cortex receive both motor information (from cerebral cortex and nuclei of other parts of brain) and sensory information spinal cord and other parts of the brain. Uses that information to coordinate and fine-tune movement, particularly timing and precision. White matter carries that information to and from nuclei and cortex.
Medulla Oblongata develops from Some nuclei help regulate respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, blood distribution. Other nuclei regulate vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing. White matter carries motor information from other regions of brain to spinal cord, and sensory information from spinal cord to other regions of brain.
Cerebrum Arises Consists of separated by each other by the Each hemisphere is hollow, containing
Cerebrum Each hemisphere Includes Coronal Section
Cerebral Cortex Each gyrus, sulcus, and fissure has a name You don't need to know all of them You will need to know the following: Central Sulcus Precentral Gyrus Postcentral Gyrus Longitudinal Fissure Parietooccipital Sulcus Lateral Fissure/Sulcus
Cerebral Cortex Different regions of the cortex have specific functions Three types of functional areas:
Cerebral Cortex Different regions of the cortex have specific functions From your reading and lab exercises, you should know the functions of the following areas and where they are located: Primary somatosensory area Somatosensory association area Primary motor area Motor association area Primary visual area Visual association cortex Primary auditory area Auditory association area Questions on these may be on lecture and/or lab exams
Cerebral Cortex Different regions of the cortex have specific functions
Cerebral Cortex Different regions of the cortex have specific functions Two regions of cortex important in language: deals with formation of speech deals with recognition and interpretation of speech
From your reading and lab exercises, you should also know the locations of the - Lateral ventricles - Interventricular foramen - Third ventricle - Fourth ventricle - Mesencephalic aquaduct - Median aperture - Lateral apertures Questions on these may be on lecture and/or lab exams
Brain is surrounded by three layers of connective tissue:
The brain is protected in three ways: 1) 2) 3) Floats in