Presentation on theme: "Pneumonia: nursing management Islamic University Nursing College."— Presentation transcript:
Pneumonia: nursing management Islamic University Nursing College
Definition Pneumonia is a pulmonary infection or inflammation that develops after someone inhales airborne pathogens or aspirates pathogens in secretions from the upper respiratory or gastrointestinal tract.
Classification -Bacterial -Viral - Fungal. Depending on the patient's clinical and X-ray findings, pneumonia is further classified as lobar pneumonia (affecting one or more lobes), bronchopneumonia (affecting the terminal bronchial tree, distal airways, and alveoli), or inflammation of the interstitial space.
Community-acquired pneumonia is pneumonia that someone contracts outside the hospital setting. In many cases, a respiratory virus, such as influenza or adenovirus, is the infectious organism. The most common bacterial cause is Gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae. Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pneumonia develops more than 7 days after hospital admission. It's likely to be caused by different pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella.
Elderly Very young Cystic fibrosis Respiratory conditions Smoking Immunocomprompromised Heart disease Diabetes Risk factors for Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)
Signs and symptoms a. Cough, b. Sputum c. Dyspnea, Grunting d. Pleuritic chest pain e. Crackles (auscultation) f. Dullness (percussion) g. Fever or hypothermia h. Low or high WBC count, Fever i. Drowsiness
Less common signs and symptoms a. Increased heart rate b. Cyanosis c. Retractions (infants and children) d. Lung secretions e. Dehydration f. Anorexia g. Behavior changes
X-ray findings a. Viral b. Bacterial c. Uncommon organism