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Atomic Structure, Bonding, and Periodic Table Basics

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Presentation on theme: "Atomic Structure, Bonding, and Periodic Table Basics"— Presentation transcript:

1 Atomic Structure, Bonding, and Periodic Table Basics

2 Objective 4 TEK 7 The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. (D) Relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table.

3 Electrons in the outermost level are called valence electrons.
Atoms are the basic unit of chemistry. They consist of 3 smaller things: Protons - these are positively charged (+) Electrons - these are negatively charged (-) Neutrons - these have no charge (o) Each part is arranged in a specific location: Protons-center (nucleus) Neutrons-center (nucleus) Electrons-surround in energy levels. Electrons in the outermost level are called valence electrons.

4 Number of protons=Atomic number
How many? Number of protons=Atomic number Number of electrons= Atomic number Number of neutrons=The mass number – the number of protons. (NOTE: The mass number of an element is the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.)

5 Sodium mass number

6 Carbon mass number

7 Your turn!! Complete the following chart indicating the number of protons, neutrons and electrons each atom has.

8 Element Protons Neutrons Electrons 17 18 17 26 30 26 12 12 12 82 126
Chlorine-35 Iron-56 Magnesium-24 Lead-208 Nitrogen-14 17 18 17 26 30 26 12 12 12 82 126 82 7 7 7

9 are periodic functions of the number of valence electrons an atom has.
Chemical Properties Groups or families (vertical column) of elements are listed by increasing atomic number and they have similar chemical properties. Periods (horizontal rows) of elements usually start with a reactive solid and end with an unreactive gas, called a noble gas. Periods also increase by atomic number.

10 Properties of Metals: luster, ductile, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity, lose electrons to form + ions Metals

11 Properties of Nonmetals: dull, brittle, insulators (poor conductors), gain electrons to form – ions

12 Metalloid (Semimetals) are elements that border the diagonal line between metals and nonmetals. Metalloids have some properties of both metals and nonmetals. They act as a metal with a nonmetal or as a nonmetal with a metal. Metalloids or semimetals

13 Bonding It’s the valence electrons orbiting in the outer energy level that allow one atom to interact with other atoms so they can be linked together.

14 Valence Electrons 6 valence electrons 5 valence electrons 7 valence electrons 1 valence electron 4 valence electrons 8 valence electrons 2 valence electrons 3 valence electrons Electrons in the outermost level are called valence electrons.

15 IONIC BONDING occurs typically between a metal and a non-metal. The metal atom loses electrons which are taken by the non-metal. Therefore, the metal ion produced has a positive charge and the non-metal ion is negatively charged. Loose electrons (+) Accept electrons (-)

16 Sodium +   Chlorine    Sodium Chloride (metal (non-metal (NaCl) group IA) group VIIA)

17 Covalent Bonding occurs when electrons are shared between atoms.
Covalent bonding occurs between non-metals due to the fact that all of the atoms need to gain electrons, so they have to share. hydrogen gas (H2 ) Water, (H2O) methane(CH4)

18 METALLIC BONDING occurs typically between two metals.
Metals when bonded together have many extra electrons. These extra electrons allow for the conduction of electricity.

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