Presentation on theme: "Atomic Structure, Bonding, and Periodic Table Basics"— Presentation transcript:
1 Atomic Structure, Bonding, and Periodic Table Basics
2 Objective 4 TEK 7 The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. (D) Relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table.
3 Electrons in the outermost level are called valence electrons. Atoms are the basic unit of chemistry. They consist of 3 smaller things:Protons - these are positively charged (+)Electrons - these are negatively charged (-)Neutrons - these have no charge (o)Each part is arranged in a specific location:Protons-center (nucleus)Neutrons-center (nucleus)Electrons-surround in energy levels.Electrons in the outermost level are called valence electrons.
4 Number of protons=Atomic number How many?Number of protons=Atomic numberNumber of electrons= Atomic numberNumber of neutrons=The mass number – the number of protons. (NOTE: The mass number of an element is the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.)
9 are periodic functions of the number of valence electrons an atom has. Chemical PropertiesGroups or families (vertical column) of elements are listed by increasing atomic number and they have similar chemical properties.Periods (horizontal rows) of elements usually start with a reactive solid and end with an unreactive gas, called a noble gas. Periods also increase by atomic number.
10 Properties of Metals: luster, ductile, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity, lose electrons to form + ionsMetals
11 Properties of Nonmetals: dull, brittle, insulators (poor conductors), gain electrons to form – ions
12 Metalloid (Semimetals) are elements that border the diagonal line between metals and nonmetals. Metalloids have some properties of both metals and nonmetals. They act as a metal with a nonmetal or as a nonmetal with a metal.Metalloids or semimetals
13 BondingIt’s the valence electrons orbiting in the outer energy level that allow one atom to interact with other atoms so they can be linked together.
14 Valence Electrons6 valence electrons5 valence electrons7 valence electrons1 valence electron4 valence electrons8 valence electrons2 valence electrons3 valence electronsElectrons in the outermost level are called valence electrons.
15 IONIC BONDINGoccurs typically between a metal and a non-metal. The metal atom loses electrons which are taken by the non-metal. Therefore, the metal ion produced has a positive charge and the non-metal ion is negatively charged.Loose electrons (+)Accept electrons (-)
16 Sodium + Chlorine Sodium Chloride (metal (non-metal (NaCl) group IA) group VIIA)
17 Covalent Bonding occurs when electrons are shared between atoms. Covalent bonding occurs between non-metals due to the fact that all of the atoms need to gain electrons, so they have to share.hydrogen gas (H2 )Water, (H2O)methane(CH4)
18 METALLIC BONDING occurs typically between two metals. Metals when bonded together have many extra electrons. These extra electrons allow for the conduction of electricity.