2 “The Atom”I. Atom- The building blocks of matter.A. Atoms have three parts:1. Protons (Positive Charge)2. Neutrons (Neutral Charge)3. Electrons (Negative Charge)B. Protons and Neutrons are in the center of the atom. This is called the nucleus.C. Protons and Neutrons determine a substances identity, and an electron determines its reactivity.
3 Periodic Table of Elements I. The Periodic Table of Elements is the collection of all known substances in the world.A. Element- a substance that can not be broken down into a simpler substance.B. The elements on the periodic table are arranged according to their proton, neutron, and electron make-up.C. There are 4 characteristics of each element that you need to understand.1. Atomic # - This defines what the element is or how many protons the element has.
4 * Why English or Latin letters? * Atoms of different elements have different atomic numbers.* Since elements are electrically neutral, the # of protons equals the # of electrons.2. Atomic Symbol – This is the symbol for the element. Could be English or Latin letters.* Why English or Latin letters?3. Atomic Mass – Average Mass of the element or the total number of neutrons and protons in an element.* The mass – the atomic # = the number neutrons the element has.
5 All atoms of a given element have the same * All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons & electrons.* Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. These are called isotopes.* Isotopes have the same atomic number, but a different mass number.4. Electron Configuration – Often Called groups.* Electron Configuration tells you where an elements electrons are.* This determines what an element will react with.
6 Every atom goal is to have its outer energy * Every atom goal is to have its outer energy level (Shell) filled with electrons. If it is filled this element is said to be stable (not likely to react).* Group 18 (8A) are stable.
7 Reading Information on Periodic Table 166AElectron ConfigurationAtomic NumberSymbolName6CCarbon12.011*Memorize*Atomic # = # of protons# of protons = # of electronsAtomic mass = # of protons + # of neutronsElectron Configuration = # of electrons in outer most energy level (shell).Average Atomic MassWhy is the mass of carbon a decimal?
8 Practice What is the atomic number of Li? How may electrons are in Li? 11AWhat is the atomic number of Li?How may electrons are in Li?What is the mass number?How many neutrons are in Li?How many electrons are in Li’s outer shell?What will Li react with easily?3LiLithium6Look at the periodic table in your notes:What is the name of an element that has 47 protons?
9 With your partner: Choose an element from the periodic table. Create a practice set of questions similar to the questions on slide 8 of your notes.Have your partner complete the questions.Turn in both question sets when finished.
10 PARTS OF THE PERIODIC TABLE Period – horizontal rowGroup – vertical columns; they are numbered 1 – 18Family – specific name describing one or more groups; ex: Column 18 is the noble gasesElements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons (electrons in their outer shell)
11 CLASSES OF ELEMENTS Metals – left and center part of periodic table Conduct heat and electricityHave LusterMalleableDuctileAll are solid atroom temperature(except mercury)
12 CLASSES OF ELEMENTS Cont. Nonmetals – right side of the periodic tableVery abundant in naturePoor conductors of electricity and heat, brittle, many are gasesHydrogen is the only exception
13 CLASSES OF ELEMENTS Cont. Metalloids – some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetalsThey are found along the border between metals and nonmetalsThey are semiconductors
14 CLASSES OF ELEMENTS Groups Activity: You will be assigned one of the following groups:Alkali Metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, Transition Metals, Boron Family, Carbon Family, Notrogen Family, Oxygen Family, The Halogens, & The Noble GasesCreate a poster that has at least 5 facts about the family or group assignedAt the completion of the activity all students will vote for one poster in each groupThe winners will be hung outside in the hall