2 MatterAnything that has mass and takes up spaceMade of atoms
3 Matter Proton: Neutron: neutral & in the nucleus Matter Atom Electron: Positive & in the nucleusNeutron: neutral & in the nucleusMatterAnything that has mass and takes up spaceAtomSmallest unit of matterElectron:Negative, tiny, & outside of the nucleus
4 ATOMS Smallest unit of matter. Atoms make up everything (that has mass and takes up space).
5 Protons (+) Determines the identity of the Element Represents the Atomic #Positively chargedNucleusPart of the atoms mass
6 Neutrons – No charge Neutral – No charge Nucleus Part of the atoms mass
7 Electrons (-) Negatively charged smallest particles Outside nucleus Found in the electron cloudLocated in energy levels
24 Nonmetals Usually gases or brittle solids Poor conductors of heat and electricityThey are insulatorsRight side of the periodic tableOnly 17 nonmetals
25 Metalloids Called Semi-metals Share properties of both metals and nonmetalsLocated on the zig-zag line between the metals and nonmetals.
26 Groups/Families 18 groups Vertical Columns on the periodic table Same # of valence electronsSame chemical properties including reactivityReactivity – Elements tendency to undergo chemical reactions
27 Periods 7 horizontal rows on the periodic table Consist of elements with the same number of electron levels.
28 Alkali Metals Group #1 All metals 1 Valence Electron Very reactive Most reactive – the only need to lose 1 valence electron in chemical bonds
29 Alkaline-Earth Metals Group #2All Metals2 Valence ElectronsVery reactive but less than group #1.Only have to lose 2 valence electrons in chemical bonds
30 Valence Electrons Group 1 – all elements have 1 valence electron have 2 valence electrons
31 Transition Metals Groups # 3-12 All metals 1 or 2 valence electrons Less reactive than group #2Also contains lanthanide and actinide series
32 Groups # 13-16Elements change from metals to nonmetals and include the metalloids.Atoms have 10 fewer valence electrons than the group #.Boron Group # valence electronsCarbon Group # valence electronsNitrogen Group # valence electronsOxygen Group # valence electrons
33 Halogens Group 17 All nonmetals 7 valence electrons Very reactive Only need to gain 1 more electron for a total of 8!
34 Noble Gases/Inert Gases Group # 18All nonmetals8 valence electrons - except helium only has 2.UnreactiveHave a full outer electron level2 on the 1st level8 on the 2nd level
35 Hydrogen stands alone 1 valence electron Very reactive Colorless, odorless gas at room temperature.Low densityReacts explosively with Oxygen