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Lecture 2 The main notions of Grammar The word and the morpheme

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1 Lecture 2 The main notions of Grammar The word and the morpheme
Types of the opposition. Oppositional reduction Types of morphemes Means of form-building Types of words (stems)

2 The main notions of grammar
The lexeme (child,children, child’s, children’s) the grammeme (child’s, boys’, bird’s, else’s… boys, children, phenomena, teeth, mice) the grammatical meaning (3d person, singular number) the grammatical form the paradigm the grammatical category

3 Grammatical meaning Grammatical form
It is obligatory, it must be expressed in speech It must have a form of expression (inflexions, analytical form, word order, intonation). walks – is walking process It’s a means of expressing grammatical meaning, It may lend variety to speech, Many men – many a man It may convey the information more emotionally He is constantly slamming the door You are being naughty today. The system of all grammatical lexemes constitute a forms (grammemes ) of all PARADIGM

4 Grammatical category a unity of a special grammatical form and a special grammatical meaning. a certain grammatical meaning which is expressed by a grammatical form. a grammatical form expressing a special grammatical meaning. It is revealed by the method of binary OPPOSITIONS

5 Members of the oposition
Unmarked (week) Make- – makes+ Marked (strong) Makes+ – making+

6 Types of the opposition
Go- – went+ Built+ – was built+ good- – better+ - best+) Tense, gender, number, person Case, gender, order, article determination Privative Equipollent Gradual Notional Formal

7 Oppositional reduction
Neutralization Man is sinful. A rose is a beautiful flower. The train arrives at 5 tomorrow Transposition The sun had the Belsey house in her hands. In November an unseen stranger called Pneumonia touched people here and there with his icy fingers.

8 The morpheme The word Is one of the central notions of grammatical theory. is the smallest meaningful unit of a word-form (occurs in speech as a part of the word) It constitutes words (MORPHS) Is one of the basic units of language Is a naming unit of language Is the smallest meaningful unit of speech The main features are: -- isolatability -- uninterruptibility -- looseness

9 The word is a nominative unit of the language formed by morphemes, which enters the lexicon of the language as its elementary component used for the formation of the sentence with other nominative elements.

10 - Position in the word -Meaning - Function Types of Morphemes
Root door Prefix in-doors Suffix form-al Infix teeth Lexical day lexical-grammatical Writ-er Grammatical strong-er form-building word-building

11 Types of morphemes in descriptive linguistics
Free (contrast) Bound (contrast-ive) Semi-bound (has written) Overt (стен-а) Covert (стен - -) Continuous Discontinuous (Is do-ing) Segmental Teach-er Supresegmental Import – import Additive (look-ed) Replacive (teeth) Criteria Degree of self- dependence Formal presentation Linear characteristics Segmental relations Grammatical alteration

12 Types of stems Simple Derivative Compound Composite

13 Means of form-building
Synthetic : inner inflexion (teeth, tooth) outer inflexion (tables, doing) suppletivity (went, was) Analytical: possessing discontinuous morphemes \ bound morphemes (is waiting)

14 Criteria for distinguishing an analytical form
1. A total grammatical meaning is built on the basis of a word combination of all components of the form. Each component in isolation doesn’t possess the information about the total meaning of the given form. 2. Among the components of the analytical form there are no syntactic relations. 3. Syntactic relations are possible for the whole form in total with its surroundings in a sentence 4. Analytical forms are correlated with synthetic forms. There must be at least one synthetic form in the paradigm. 5. Auxiliary elements lose their lexical meaning and can be contracted.

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