Presentation on theme: "Students and their Teachers"— Presentation transcript:
1 Students and their Teachers Stages of SLAStudents and their Teachers
2 THE SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNER AND THE LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESS DEVELOPMENTAL STAGESPRE-PRODUCTIONEARLY PRODUCTIONSPEECH EMERGENCEINTERMEDIATE PRODUCTIONCHARACTER-ISTICSSilent Period1-2 Word ResponsesLists3 Word ResponsesShort phrasesComplete sentencesDialogueConnected discourseTIMELINE L1Birth-6 months6 Months – 2 Years2 - 5 Years5+ YearsTIMELINE L210 Hours to 3 Months of structured ESL Instruction2 - 3 Years3 – 6 Years
3 STAGES OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PREPRODUCTIONEARLY PRODUCTIONSPEECH EMERGENCEListeningShy studentStudents respond non-verbally10 hours to 6 monthsContinuing listeningStudents respond w/12.6 months to 1 yearSight vocab. (older students).May seem fluent, but needs to expand vocab. and CALP.Engages in dialog.3-4 years.500 receptive words1000 receptive words10% of vocab. Is expressive.Continued BICS development.7000 receptive words.12,000 receptive words.CALP development.90% Teacher TalkTPRModelingActive student involvementWho, What, Where questions.Yes/No answers.Student follows commands.Use of pictures.Use of realia.50-60% Teacher talkTPR with responsesAnswer Who, What, Where Qs.Role PlayingCompleting SentencesAnswers Qs. w/phrases40% Teacher talkPoetryPredictingComparingDescribingSocial InteractionHow and Why Qs.LEAProblem SolvingGroup DiscussionLabeling10% teacher talkEssay writing with pre-writing activities.Analyzing charts and graphs.Problem solving.EvaluatingAnswer How and Why questions.Literary Analysis.CharacteristicsVocabularyTeacher Strategies
4 Questioning Techniques for the Different Stages of 2L Acquisition. PREPRODUCTIONEARLY PRODUCTIONSPEECH EMERGENCEINTERMEDIATE FLUENCYPoint to….Find the….Put the ______ next to the _______ .Give the ____ to ____Who has the ________?Do you have the ____?Is this a _______?Who wants the _____?Who has the _______?Yes/no Qs: Is Jimmy wearing a sweater?Either/or Qs: Is this a pencil or an eraser?One-word responses Qs: What does the woman have in her hand?General Qs. which encourage lists of words: What do we see on the playground?Two-word responses: Where did he go? To school.Why?How?Tell me about/talk about….What do you think about?Describe….How would you change this part of the story?What would you recommend/suggest?How do you think this story will end?What is your opinion (on this matter)?Describe/compare…How are these different/similar?What would happen if…?Which do you prefer?
5 STUDENT ACTIVITIES ACCORDING TO L2 STAGES OF ACQUISITION LEVELSOF L2ACAQ.PRE-PRODUCTIONBEGINNING EARLY PRODUCTIONSPEECH EMERGENCEINTERMEDIATEADVANCEDSTUDENPerforms an actPoints to an item in pictureUses gesturersManipulates items to demonstrate understandingImitatesNodsWrites a letter corresponding to a picture.Says yes or noSays names of other students.Gives yes or no answersGives one-word answers from either-or quest.Gives one-word answers from general Qs.Gives lists of word stringsUses global/general expressionsUses three-word stringsUses short phrasesUses longer phrasesUses complete sentencesParticipates in dialoguesEngages in simple storytellingEngages in extended discourseUses narrative formRetells storiesWrites storiesUses complex statementsStates opinionsReports on eventsGives instructionsExpresses most of what he/she wants to sayFollows lecturesUnderstands differences in L1 – L2 intonationDiscusses idioms
6 TEACHER ACTIVITIES ACCORDING TO L2 STAGES OF ACQUISITION LEVELSOF L2ACQ.PRE-PRODUCTIONBEGINNING EARLY PRODUCTIONSPEECH EMERGENCEINTERMEDIATEADVANCEDTEACHRSeeks to develop listening comprehensionSeeks to build receptive vocabularyProvides opportunities to listenUses visual aidsSpeaks more slowly to facilitate comprehensionEmphasizes and reiterates key wordsUses gesturesActs out scenes whenever possibleDoes not force productionSeeks to build receptive vocab.Seeks to develop active vocab.Structures Qs. that require responses appropriate to early production student.Allows for mistakes in pronunciation, form, grammar, and word usage.Seeks to develop receptive and active vocab.Seeks to develop higher level thinking skillsSeeks to develop and extend verbal expressionStructures Qs. that require responses appropriate to speech emergence student.Provides situations that will encourage speech production that is longer and more complexDevelops skills in following a lectureSelects higher level thinking skills on which to focusProvides extensive practiceProvides directed lessons on idioms, nuances, etc.Organizes activities that develop native like intonationProvides practice with conventionsVOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT IS STRESSED THROUGHOUT ALL LEVELS OF L2 ACQUISITION
7 NATURAL APPROACH AND and TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE ACTIVITIES ACCORDING TO L2 STAGES PREPRODUCTIONBEGINNING, EARLY PRODUCTIONSPEECH EMERGENCEINTERMEDIATEADVANCED.Development of vocab. using pictures.Games requiring nonverbal responsesPhysical activitiesFollowing directions, in art, music, crafts, etcCharadesPicturesRole-playingOpen-ended sentencesOpen dialoguesInterviews with guidelinesRecites short poemsSings songsCharts, Tables, graphsNewspaper adsGroup discussionSkitsPreference rankingGamesCloze activities with songs, radio, TV.FilmstripsFilling out formsDescriptions of visualsParaphrasingNegotiating meaningDefendingOral discussionsGuided discoursesGroup panelsAssumptionsConjecturePredictionsIncrease difficulty include expressions of humor, sarcasm, etc.ACTIVITIES
8 INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES: ORAL FLUENCY PRE-PRODUCTIONBEGINNING EARLY PRODUCTIONSPEECH EMERGENCEINTERMEDIATE FLUENCYDeveloped through their L1.Listening comprehension is basic.Activities to teach to recognize the meaning of words used in communicative contextsTeach to guess at the meaning of utterances without knowing all of the words or grammarProvide environm. comfortable and free of criticism or overt correctionUse visual aidsModify speechDo not force productionFocus on new vocab. by writing it and have them copy it.TPRSupply comprehensible input based on classroom experiences and pictures/realia.Yes/no Qs.Either/or Qs.Qs. w/one-word answersGeneral Qs. that encourage lists of words answersOpen sentences w/pauses for student response (M. has a blue shirt, but r. has a ____ shirt)Give comprehensible instruction and expand students’ responses.Open dialogues.Guided interviewsOpen-ended sentencesCharts, tables, graphs w/discussionMore cognitively demanding tasksPreference rankingOral games of all sortsGroup discussionSkitsRadio, TV, ads.Open dialoguesShort playsReceptive comprehension is complete in almost every concrete context.Abstract situations may be difficult (poetry recited, radio broadcasts on complex subjects, etc)Responses are appropriate, complete and often embellished.Some grammatical structures continue to be violated.Language is used at an almost native level.3-6 years phase towards advanced fluency as they study content and language over time.Focus on communication and meaningCorrection of grammatical mistakes should be kept to a minimum and only addressed when they interfere with meaning.