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Students and their Teachers

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1 Students and their Teachers
Stages of SLA Students and their Teachers

DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES PRE-PRODUCTION EARLY PRODUCTION SPEECH EMERGENCE INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTION CHARACTER -ISTICS Silent Period 1-2 Word Responses Lists 3 Word Responses Short phrases Complete sentences Dialogue Connected discourse TIMELINE L1 Birth-6 months 6 Months – 2 Years 2 - 5 Years 5+ Years TIMELINE L2 10 Hours to 3 Months of structured ESL Instruction 2 - 3 Years 3 – 6 Years

PREPRODUCTION EARLY PRODUCTION SPEECH EMERGENCE Listening Shy student Students respond non-verbally 10 hours to 6 months Continuing listening Students respond w/1 2.6 months to 1 year Sight vocab. (older students). May seem fluent, but needs to expand vocab. and CALP. Engages in dialog. 3-4 years. 500 receptive words 1000 receptive words 10% of vocab. Is expressive. Continued BICS development. 7000 receptive words. 12,000 receptive words. CALP development. 90% Teacher Talk TPR Modeling Active student involvement Who, What, Where questions. Yes/No answers. Student follows commands. Use of pictures. Use of realia. 50-60% Teacher talk TPR with responses Answer Who, What, Where Qs. Role Playing Completing Sentences Answers Qs. w/phrases 40% Teacher talk Poetry Predicting Comparing Describing Social Interaction How and Why Qs. LEA Problem Solving Group Discussion Labeling 10% teacher talk Essay writing with pre-writing activities. Analyzing charts and graphs. Problem solving. Evaluating Answer How and Why questions. Literary Analysis. Characteristics Vocabulary Teacher Strategies

4 Questioning Techniques for the Different Stages of 2L Acquisition.
PREPRODUCTION EARLY PRODUCTION SPEECH EMERGENCE INTERMEDIATE FLUENCY Point to…. Find the…. Put the ______ next to the _______ . Give the ____ to ____ Who has the ________? Do you have the ____? Is this a _______? Who wants the _____? Who has the _______? Yes/no Qs: Is Jimmy wearing a sweater? Either/or Qs: Is this a pencil or an eraser? One-word responses Qs: What does the woman have in her hand? General Qs. which encourage lists of words: What do we see on the playground? Two-word responses: Where did he go? To school. Why? How? Tell me about/talk about…. What do you think about? Describe…. How would you change this part of the story? What would you recommend/suggest? How do you think this story will end? What is your opinion (on this matter)? Describe/compare… How are these different/similar? What would happen if…? Which do you prefer?

LEVELS OF L2 ACAQ. PRE-PRODUCTION BEGINNING EARLY PRODUCTION SPEECH EMERGENCE INTERME DIATE ADVANCED S T U D E N Performs an act Points to an item in picture Uses gesturers Manipulates items to demonstrate understanding Imitates Nods Writes a letter corresponding to a picture. Says yes or no Says names of other students. Gives yes or no answers Gives one-word answers from either-or quest. Gives one-word answers from general Qs. Gives lists of word strings Uses global/general expressions Uses three-word strings Uses short phrases Uses longer phrases Uses complete sentences Participates in dialogues Engages in simple storytelling Engages in extended discourse Uses narrative form Retells stories Writes stories Uses complex statements States opinions Reports on events Gives instructions Expresses most of what he/she wants to say Follows lectures Understands differences in L1 – L2 intonation Discusses idioms

LEVELS OF L2 ACQ. PRE-PRODUCTION BEGINNING EARLY PRODUCTION SPEECH EMERGENCE INTERMEDIATE ADVANCED T E A C H R Seeks to develop listening comprehension Seeks to build receptive vocabulary Provides opportunities to listen Uses visual aids Speaks more slowly to facilitate comprehension Emphasizes and reiterates key words Uses gestures Acts out scenes whenever possible Does not force production Seeks to build receptive vocab. Seeks to develop active vocab. Structures Qs. that require responses appropriate to early production student. Allows for mistakes in pronunciation, form, grammar, and word usage. Seeks to develop receptive and active vocab. Seeks to develop higher level thinking skills Seeks to develop and extend verbal expression Structures Qs. that require responses appropriate to speech emergence student. Provides situations that will encourage speech production that is longer and more complex Develops skills in following a lecture Selects higher level thinking skills on which to focus Provides extensive practice Provides directed lessons on idioms, nuances, etc. Organizes activities that develop native like intonation Provides practice with conventions VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT IS STRESSED THROUGHOUT ALL LEVELS OF L2 ACQUISITION

PREPRODUCTION BEGINNING, EARLY PRODUCTION SPEECH EMERGENCE INTERMEDIATE ADVANCED . Development of vocab. using pictures. Games requiring nonverbal responses Physical activities Following directions, in art, music, crafts, etc Charades Pictures Role-playing Open-ended sentences Open dialogues Interviews with guidelines Recites short poems Sings songs Charts, Tables, graphs Newspaper ads Group discussion Skits Preference ranking Games Cloze activities with songs, radio, TV. Filmstrips Filling out forms Descriptions of visuals Paraphrasing Negotiating meaning Defending Oral discussions Guided discourses Group panels Assumptions Conjecture Predictions Increase difficulty include expressions of humor, sarcasm, etc. ACTIVITIES

PRE-PRODUCTION BEGINNING EARLY PRODUCTION SPEECH EMERGENCE INTERMEDIATE FLUENCY Developed through their L1. Listening comprehension is basic. Activities to teach to recognize the meaning of words used in communicative contexts Teach to guess at the meaning of utterances without knowing all of the words or grammar Provide environm. comfortable and free of criticism or overt correction Use visual aids Modify speech Do not force production Focus on new vocab. by writing it and have them copy it. TPR Supply comprehensible input based on classroom experiences and pictures/realia. Yes/no Qs. Either/or Qs. Qs. w/one-word answers General Qs. that encourage lists of words answers Open sentences w/pauses for student response (M. has a blue shirt, but r. has a ____ shirt) Give comprehensible instruction and expand students’ responses. Open dialogues. Guided interviews Open-ended sentences Charts, tables, graphs w/discussion More cognitively demanding tasks Preference ranking Oral games of all sorts Group discussion Skits Radio, TV, ads. Open dialogues Short plays Receptive comprehension is complete in almost every concrete context. Abstract situations may be difficult (poetry recited, radio broadcasts on complex subjects, etc) Responses are appropriate, complete and often embellished. Some grammatical structures continue to be violated. Language is used at an almost native level. 3-6 years phase towards advanced fluency as they study content and language over time. Focus on communication and meaning Correction of grammatical mistakes should be kept to a minimum and only addressed when they interfere with meaning.

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