2 Language Facts Historically, ELL are put into a “no-win” position. Most students need 5-7 years to gain academic language proficiency.The language used in school is different from the language used outside the classroom.Beg. English speakers are denied access to content instruction until they reach a certain level of oral fluency and as soon as that happens they are put into a classroom with no help.If you think about our home it took us five years of developing our language and being able to communicate before we started kindergarten. It takes 2-3 years to learn to speak a language, but 5-7 years to achieve proficiency in the abstract and academic language associated with content and insturction.ELL students do not get to practice at home, they are typically surrounded by people that speak a different language.
3 Content Based ELL Instruction This is an extremely effective approach for acquiring English. This approach provides a dual curriculum; the focus is on acquiring content knowledge with language development. It encourages the integration of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills and requires the use of higher order thinking skills.The subject matter is the same, but the delivery system is modified. There are several differences between regular classroom teachers and ELL teachers. This is by lesson plans: They must be planned out carefully, the topics need to be decided with what subtopics to cover. From the language standpoint the teacher needs to carefully examine all words that need to be discussed before the concepts are taught so that the students understand the language and the concepts. Lecture time needs to be shorter with more teacher-student discussions as to get the students where they need to be to understand the concept and vocabulary. Also allow more time for students to answer questions as ELL students often need a longer “processing time.”
4 Concrete Objects a MUST ModelsFilmsPicturesGraphsVisualsYou will notice these students will use more body language to get their points across. Students need to be actively engaged in experiencing and doing rather then just listening to the teacher. Hands-on activities and experiments are a must! Appropriate guest are invited and related through literature, magazines, newspapers must be utilized. Textbooks should be used as a guide or a resource.
5 Other Strategies Peer Interaction Cooperative Learning Small group interactionShow the students how….Review previous work often!Prior Knowledge – MOST IMPORTANTAtmosphere should be more informal & personalThis allow students to work with one another and help each other out when struggling with understanding the concepts in English.It is very important to show the students how…don’t just say we will take notes, show them how you want them to take notes. There should be NO assuming, if you want them to use reference books, show them how to use them, if you want them to outline, show them how to outline.Brainstorm with your students on a topic to see what they know. Don’t just give them the information, find out what they need to know then go from there. Review that last topic one more time before moving on.Most important one is prior knowledge…find out what they know and get them to where they need to go. They might have the concept, but have not heard that word used for that meaning. Ex. American Revolution is not known by someone from Mexico, but you can relate it to Mexico’s fight for independence. The teacher MUST provide the background knowledge needed before teaching the students a new concept.
6 Teaching the Text Backwards Read the textAnswer the questions at the end of the chapter.Discuss the MaterialDo the applications or expansionsDo the applications or expansionsDiscuss the materialAnswer the questions at the end of the chapterRead the TextThe left column is how we typically teach a lesson. The column on the right side is how ELL students learn best. The students will get so much more out of the text if reverse the order of instruction.
7 Checking WorkNot every error should be corrected on a ELL student’s work. Decide what is most important and focus on that.Continually monitor student’s work while they are working and discuss with them about what they are learning and how they came to their answer. Dialogue as much as possible with them.Two areas to make sure you correct…Errors that stigmatize and errors that cause a lack of comprehension. Once the assignment is graded go back and talk to the students, interact with them and explain their mistakes and take them through the process of showing them the needed corrections.
8 Social Studies Challenges: -Abstract Concepts -Specialized Vocabulary -Complex grammatical structures-Important skills for locating information & using maps & globes.Strategies:-Teach fewer topics, greater depth-Link instruction to prior knowledge-Be flexible-Use and oral history report-Cooperative Learning-Real objectives i.e. visuals, technology to make content assessable.
9 Science Challenges: -Vocabulary and Technical terms -Expository Text -Complex Grammar-Lack of Prior Experience-Importance of Study Skills-All Language skills are requiredStrategies:-Teach Science by themes-Use scientific inquiry-Spend more time with fewer concepts-Teach the language of science-Modify teacher talk-Adapt written materials-Teach problem solving and learning strategies
10 Math Challenges: -Vocabulary -Complex concepts present in word problems.-Cultural differences in math symbols and procedures.Strategies:-Emphasize problem solving and communicationRelate math to students real life experiences.-Encourage Math communication-Put students needs and interests first-Teach the language of math-Integrate reading in to math-Make connections to students prior knowledge
11 Writing -Model writing -Ask a volunteer to take notes for an ELL student who is having difficulty-Have students make their own vocabulary books.-Have students write summaries or draw illustrations of reading passages.
12 Reading “Front Load” the lesson by presenting new ideas before reading Preview the contentUse Graphic OrganizersTeach selected vocabularyProvide study guidesPrepare discussion questions to use while readingRewrite the materialFind easier editions or materials
13 SpeakingPlace students in small groups. Include native speakers of English in the groupsUse cooperative learning strategiesAllow extra wait timeProvide different ways for students to say they don’t understandAsk students to paraphrase what has been presentedHave students brainstorm vocabulary or background information.
14 Listening Simplify your speech Set the purpose for listening with focus questionsUse concrete objectsDraw Graphic Organizers or illustrations while you talkGive students organizers while you talkAccess students’ prior knowledgeFrequently use key vocabularyCheck students’ understanding by asking questions and watching students’ non-verbal language.
15 Show, Tell, Try, Do People remember in the following ways… 10% of what they read20% of what they hear30% of what they see50% of what they see & hear70% of what they say90% of what they say & do
16 Show, Tell, Try, Do Show Chart Demonstrate Display Depict Graph Model IllustrateTellLectureAddressInformDescribeNarrateRead/Speak toExplain
17 Show, Tell, Try, Do Try Hands on Manipulate Exchange Coach Engage GuideInteractDiscussExperimentFit/handle/tryDoComposeTestCompleteHomeworkExecuteWorksheetRespondWriteActMaster
18 Don’t… …worry if learners use their first language with each other. …worry….Have Patience, stay calm…undershoot or under challenge the learners’ ability to think or solve problems.…talk louder to get a point across.…correct errors that don’t interfere with meaning…finish ELL learner’s answers.This will actually help the process.Learning conversational English as a second language takes time.No knowing English as a second language has no relationship to intelligence. Respect their intelligence.Repeat slowly, paraphrase, or write the information down.Focus on what the teacher needs for the content to get across.Let them struggle a bit to communicate when at all possible, allow plenty of wait time before going ahead.
19 Make Learning Fun! Use humor when interacting with ELL students!!
20 ReferencesGarcia, E., E. E. Garcia, E. Hamayan, L. Kratky A. Schifini, D.J. Short, J.V. Tinajero Avenues. Carme., CA: Hamtpon-Brown.Enriching Content Classes for Secondary ESOL Students (National Edition) Study Guide Section 2: Language Learning in School, p. 37.Stages of Language Acquisition. Pearson Achievement Solutions, A division of Pearson Education