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Stages of Second Language Acquisition

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1 Stages of Second Language Acquisition
Descriptions, Instructional Adaptations, & Strategies (adapted from DCIU) Dr. Laura Taddei Neumann University

2 Activity: Contextual Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition
Divide the class into groups Each group reads a section from the article titled “Contextual Factors in Second Language Acquisition” Record on chart paper the main idea of each section Brainstorm implications for this information as it pertains to the ELL in the school setting Be prepared to share out Discuss the meaning of: “The classroom should be both a mirror and a window in regards to culture.”

3 STAGES of Second Language Acquisition
Stage 1: Pre-Production – Students do not verbalize; may use gestures (nod, point); minimal comprehension Stage 2: Early Production – Students produce one- or two- word responses, use key words; limited comprehension Stage 3: Speech Emergence – Students produce simple sentences; good comprehension Stage 4: Intermediate Fluency – Students may appear to be English proficient, yet development is incomplete Stage 5: Advanced Fluency – Students can converse fluently with native speakers

4 Pre-Production/Beginning Stage (Stage 1)
Student may experience a silent period Speak in one- or two-word utterances May respond non-verbally to simple commands, statements, & questions May have up to 500 words in their receptive vocabulary May repeat every thing you say (parroting) Cannot carry on a conversation May speak spontaneously using native language Student will observe others (take it in) Student will understand more than he/she can communicate Time Frame: 0 – 6 months

5 Instructional Adaptations for Stage 1
Emphasize hands-on activities, manipulatives, props, drama, ample use of visuals Provide texts with illustrations Focus on teaching language & phrases they can use immediately Construct oral questions so that students can choose from a variety of answers, including yes/no Integrate TPR (Total Physical Response) & constantly model Benefit from a “buddy” who speaks their language Teacher Prompts: Show me…, Circle the…, Point to the…, Where is …?, Who has…, Listen, Point, Move, Mime, Match, Draw, Select, Choose, Act/Act out

6 Early Production (Stage 2)
Uses single words & phrases (one- & two-words) Student tends to rehearse before speaking Can recite poems, chants, & songs (memorized chunks) Use routine expressions independently Receptive language still surpasses expressive language (limited comprehension) Vocabulary of about 1,000 words Time Frame: 6 months – 1 year

7 Instructional Adaptations for Stage 2
Break explanations & procedures into smaller chunks Provide explicit instruction of comprehension strategies Use concrete experiences, realia, & visuals (pictures, graphic organizers, charts, & graphs) Use language frames or sentence starters to aid sentence structure Model strategies Demonstrate activities step by step Focus on key vocabulary & concepts; simplify content Use think-alouds & simple books with predictable text Accept one- or two-word responses Teacher Prompts: Yes/No, Either/or, Who…?, What…?, How many…?, Name, Label, Group, List, Categorize, Tell/Say, Answer

8 Speech Emergence (Stage 3)
Produces simple sentences & questions Begins to acquire more standard word order May mispronounce and/or omit important sentence components Grammar & Pronunciation errors New errors may reflect overgeneralization of grammar rules Vocabulary of about 3,000 words Good comprehension Shows difficulty adjusting language for different situations & individuals (no situational awareness) Misunderstands jokes, idioms, sarcasm Native language interference may occur Time Frame: 1 – 3 years

9 Instructional Adaptations for Stage 3
Use graphic organizers, visuals, charts, maps, diagrams, etc… Allow students to interact with their native speaking peers to clarify new information & explain what they learned Allow for many opportunities to read & write Use of dialogue journals Aim for same content objectives while matching instruction to meet ELL’s needs Frontload language & vocabulary related to content lesson Teacher Prompts: Why…?, How…?, Explain… (Questions requiring phrase or short-sentence answers), Recall, Retell, Define, Explain, Compare/Contrast, Summarize, Describe, Restate, Role-play

10 Intermediate Fluency (Stage 4)
Student may appear to be proficient in English, but development is incomplete English is fluent, but not perfect Able to sustain a conversation with details Production increases in complexity, but errors still may appear Vocabulary of approximately 6,000 active words Excellent comprehension; will ask for clarification Will use strategies from their native language to learn content in English Continues to need assistance in organizing thoughts & monitoring own communication, especially in writing Time Frame: 3 – 5 years

11 Instructional Adaptations for Stage 4
Provide frequent opportunities to use English with native speakers on a variety of topics Scaffold instruction to help students access meaning Include explicit vocabulary instruction in every lesson Aim for the same challenging content objectives as native speakers while matching instruction to your ELL’s needs Accommodations to writing assignments may be necessary Teacher Prompts: What would happen if…?, Why do you think…? (Questions that require more than a sentence response), Analyze, Create, Defend, Debate, Complete, Evaluate, Justify, Support, Describe…

12 Advanced Fluency (Stage 5)
Can converse fluently with native speakers Produce few grammatical errors Although may appear fluent, may continue to struggle with more abstract academic language of school Excellent Comprehension: Understands general, specific, & implied language Use a variety of sentence structures & verb tenses Time Frame: 5 – 7 years (up to 10 years to achieve cognitive academic language) May be exited from ESL & other support programs

13 Instructional Adaptations for Level 5
Aim for same content objectives as native speakers, but continue to modify instruction as needed Continue to use a variety of teaching strategies to reach all learners Continue to monitor student’s progress in both language & academic development Teacher Prompts: Decide if…, Retell…

Includes Speaking, Listening, Reading, & Writing skills Level 1: Entering Level 2: Beginning Level 3: Developing Level 4: Expanding Level 5: Bridging Level 6: Reaching *All ELLs are assessed & given a level when they enter school; you should be told what level your ELL is at *ACCESS test is given each year to determine level *See WIDA documents, including CAN DO descriptors, for descriptions of levels & expectations for each

15 Info. to Remember about Speaking Proficiency
75:25 – Can understand 75%, but only express 25% BICS (social language) vs. CALP (academic language) Silent Period BICS: 1 – 3 years CALP: 5 – 9 years Language differences

16 Strategies for Building Speaking Proficiency
Think, Pair, Share Pre-teach vocabulary Sentences frames (cloze procedure), Word banks Reduce anxiety Process partner Extra wait time Choral fluency Authentic situations Readers’ Theatre Audiotapes Repeated readings

17 Info. to Remember about Listening Proficiency
Students’ receptive language will most likely be more proficient than their expressive language Remember the “blah, blah, blah” activity Create conversation settings that will reduce anxiety Consider cultural differences

18 Strategies for Building Listening Proficiency
Use visuals & realia to support lessons Avoid idioms & expressions when possible Write objectives on board Speak clearly & slowly Don’t speak louder & no baby talk Avoid caveman speech REPEAT, REPEAT, REPEAT! Provide copies of notes & outlines (before lectures) Allow audio books to reinforce text Pair with fellow native speakers for directions & clarifications

19 Info. to Remember about Reading Proficiency
Speaking proficiency does not determine reading proficiency Consider cultural differences in reading; try to provide books about a variety of cultures Reading proficiency in their first language affects reading proficiency in their second language --Remember, not all students know how to read/write in their first language

20 Strategies for Building Reading Proficiency
Think about the text – adapt/scaffold the activity (amount, assignment) Pre-teach vocabulary Build background knowledge Assess & Teach Phonological Awareness skills Label objects BDA – Before, During, After reading Chunking Summarizing Songs & Chants Use of visuals & realia Reading in first language (if available/able)

21 Info. to Remember about Writing Proficiency
Students will write at all levels of proficiency Vary supports according to proficiency level/need Writing proficiency is usually the last to develop Advanced students may still need accommodations in writing Be aware of Cultural Differences in writing styles Be aware of Language Differences

22 Strategies for Building Writing Proficiency
Sentence starters Journals Drawing pictures Word banks Cloze activities (frames) Typing activities Choice of paper size & writing utensil Sentence strips Word walls & dictionaries TPTs (Total Participation Techniques)

23 When Scoring Writing… Allow errors (see language differences)
Model differences Use graphic organizers Provide word banks for accountability Provide Rubrics &/or Models (completed product) First show examples….MODEL OFTEN! --- Use of teacher think-alouds

Use with classroom teachers & administrators to describe the second language acquisition process Use to plan with tutors & mentors who work with ELLs Use to set language goals with their ELLs Use to develop lessons & units of study with differentiated language objectives Use to explain to parents their students’ progress in speaking, listening, reading, & writing

25 ACTIVITY: Using the Can-Do Descriptors
Pick a grade level Think of a topic What activity would you have native-English speakers complete? How would you adapt this activity for the various proficiency levels? Complete: Differentiating Instruction for ELLs sheet

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