Presentation on theme: "Climate Systems WHAT IS CLIMATE? Weather is the day-to-day changes in atmospheric conditions Climate is long-term weather conditions Temperature and precipitation."— Presentation transcript:
Climate Systems WHAT IS CLIMATE? Weather is the day-to-day changes in atmospheric conditions Climate is long-term weather conditions Temperature and precipitation are the most important expressions of climate
HOW DOES CLIMATE INFLUENCE OTHER ASPECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT? Vegetation is the most visible expression of climate Animal life adapts to both climate and vegetation Soils develop in response to climate and vegetation Landforms Water resources
ECOSYSTEMS The interaction of climate, vegetation, animal life, soils, and landforms creates an environmental complex or ecosystem. Unique ecosystems evolve as a result of differing climate conditions. Climatology studies the climate regions that have evolved in response to different moisture and temperature conditions.
WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE UPON PEOPLE'S LIVES? Regions of climatic handicap have few people Deserts, rainforests, polar regions Climate influences agriculture - the choice of crops grown and animals raised Tourism and recreation Water resources Climate and disease
GREEK CLIMATE REGIONS Frigid Temperate Torrid http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/weather/2009/03/16/domestic.weather.cnn?iref=videosearch
Climate Systems Climatologists have therefore created several ways to organize the wealth of information about Earth's climate to bring order and understanding to it. Climate classification systems There are three fundamental types of classifications used in climatology. First there are empirical systems of classification that are based on observable features.
1.The Koeppen system discussed below is an empirical system. Based on observations of temperature and precipitation. These are two of the easiest climate characteristics that can be measured, and probably the ones with the longest historical record. It's fairly easy to collect air temperature readings with a thermometer and precipitation with some sort of collecting device that can measure the amount of precipitation. Climates are grouped based on annual averages and seasonal extremes.
2.Genetic classification systems: based on the cause of the climate. A genetic system relies on information about the climatic elements of solar radiation, air masses, pressure systems, etc. we still have a long way to go before we have a complete understanding of the workings of our climate. These are inherently the most difficult classifications to create and use because of the multitude of variables needed.
3. Thornthwaite classification system is one based on potential evapotranspiration climates based on water requirements. Research conducted by C.W. Thornthwaite and his associates attempted to formulate a water budget technique that assessed water demand under different environmental conditions. His classification system grew out of the issue of trying to predict the supply and demand for water in different climate regions.
Koeppen system The Koeppen system is one of the most widely used systems easy to use and data requirements are minimal. Each climate is defined according to set values of mean monthly precipitation and mean monthy temperature. The Köppen system recognizes five major climatic types; each type is designated by a capital letter.
Climate regions to coincide with well-defined vegetation regions, and described by the natural vegetation most often found there The Simplified Köppen system, as modified by later climatologists, recognizes six major climatic types, each designated by a capital letter: A = Tropical Rainy ClimatesTropical Rainy Climates B = Arid (Dry) ClimatesArid (Dry) Climates C = Humid Mesothermal (Mild Winter) Climates D = Humid Microthermal (Severe Winter) Climates E = Polar Climates H = Highland Climates
Modified Koppen Classification of World Climates
Factors Influencing the World Climatic Regions Climate of a particular place is the function of a number of factors: 1) Latitude and its influence on solar radiation received 2) Air mass influences 3) Location of global high and low pressure zones/belts 4) Pattern of prevailing winds (wind belts) 5) Location of mountain barriers 6) Heat exchange from ocean currents 7) Distribution of land and water 8) Altitude or elevation At a macro-level, the first three factors are most important in influencing a region's climate.
Vegetation is the most visible expression of climate http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbQ0Oh D3Ljk&feature=related
Climate is average of weather conditions for 30+ years Climatologists employ many different tools to organize the wealth of information about earth's climates to bring order and understanding graphs, classification systems, and maps are among the most common Temperature & Precipitation are the most important expressions of climate, and these have been used in Climographs (See above) and in climate classification schemes
HOW DOES CLIMATE INFLUENCE OTHER ASPECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT? Animal life adapts to both climate and vegetation Soils develop in response to climate and vegetation Landforms are constantly modified by climate-related processes Water availability is related to humid vs. arid climates HOW DOES CLIMATE RELATE TO ECOSYSTEMS? The interaction of climate, vegetation, animal life, soils, and landforms creates an environmental complex or ecosystem Unique ecosystems evolve as a result of differing climate conditions
WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE UPON PEOPLE'S LIVES? Regions of extreme climatic conditions have fewer people -- Deserts, rainforests, polar regions Climate influences agriculture -- Choice of crops grown and animals raised Tourism and recreation patterns are shaped by climatic conditions Water resources availability and utilization also affected by climate Climate and disease – relationships have persisted despite technological advancement Climatologists and geographers study and compare climate regions that have evolved in response to different moisture and temperature conditions, in order to enhance our understanding of these and other relationships.