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Session 2, Unit 3 Atmospheric Thermodynamics

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1 Session 2, Unit 3 Atmospheric Thermodynamics

2 Ideal Gas Law Various forms

3 Hydrostatic Equation Air density change with atmospheric pressure

4 First Law of Thermodynamics
For a body of unit mass dq=Differential increment of heat added to the body dw=Differential element of work done by the body du=Differential increase in internal energy of the body

5 Heat Capacity At constant volume At constant pressure

6 Heat Capacity Relationships

7 Concept of an Air Parcel
An air parcel of infinitesimal dimensions that is assumed to be Thermally insulated – adiabatic Same pressure as the environmental air at the same level – in hydrostatic equilibrium Moving slowly – kinetic energy is a negligible fraction of its total energy

8 Adiabatic Process Reversible adiabatic process of air

9 Lapse Rate Combine hydrostatic equation and ideal gas law
For adiabatic process

10 Lapse Rate Therefore dT/dz is Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (DALR)

11 Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate
Dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR) Or on a unit mass basis Or the expression in the textbook:

12 Lapse Rate Effect of moisture Because
Wet adiabatic lapse rate < DALR (temperature decreases slower as air parcel rises) Condensation

13 Lapse Rate Superadiabatic lapse rate (e.g., 12oC/km)
Subadiabatic lapse rate (e.g., 8oC/km) Atmospheric lapse rate Factors that change atmospheric temperature profile Standard atmosphere (lapse rate ~ 6.49 oC/km or 3.56 oF/1000 ft)

14 Potential Temperature
Current state: T, P Adiabatically change to: To, Po Set Po = 1000 mb, To is potential temperature  If an air parcel is subject to only adiabatic transformation,  remains constant Potential temperature gradient

15 Session 2, Unit 4 Turbulence and Mixing Air Pollution Climatology

16 Atmospheric Turbulence
Turbulent flows – irregular, random, and cannot be accurately predicted Eddies (or swirls) – Macroscopic random fluctuations from the “average” flow Thermal eddies Convection Mechanical eddies Shear forces produced when air moves across a rough surface

17 Lapse Rate and Stability
Neutral Stable Unstable

18 Richardson Number and Stability
Stability parameter Richardson number Stable Neutral Unstable

19 Stability Classification Schemes
Pasquill-Gifford Stability Classification Determined based on Surface wind Insolation Six classes: A through F Turner’s Stability Classification Wind speed Net radiation index Seven classes Feasible to computerize

20 Inversions Definition Types Fumigation Radiation inversion
Evaporation inversion Advection inversion Frontal inversion Subsidence inversion Fumigation

21 Planetary Boundary Layer
Turbulent layer created by a drag on atmosphere by the earth’s surface Also referred to as mixing height Inversion may determine mixing height

22 Planetary Boundary Layer
Neutral conditions Mixing height Increased wind speed and surface roughness cause higher h.

23 Planetary Boundary Layer
Unstable conditions Mixing height

24 Planetary Boundary Layer
Stable conditions Mixing height

25 Surface Layer Fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture remain constant
About lower 10% of mixing layer

26 Surface Layer Monin-Obukhov length
Monin-Obukhov length and stability classes

27 Surface Layer Wind Structure
Neutral air

28 Surface Layer Wind Structure
Unstable and stable air

29 Friction Velocity Measurements of wind speed at multiple levels can be used to determine both u* and z0

30 Power Law for Wind Profile
Wind profile power law Value of p

31 Estimation of Monin-Obukhov Length
For unstable air For stable air Bulk Richardson Number

32 Air Pollution Climatology
Meteorology vs. climatology Meteorological measurements and surveys Pollution potential -low level inversion frequency in US

33 Air Pollution Climatology
Mean maximum mixing height determined by Morning temperature sounding Maximum daytime temperature DALR Stability wind rose

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