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Class 4a: Atmospheric moisture

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Introduction to water Earth’s temperature special properties of water

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Introduction to water Energy needed to change state

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Evaporation How does water evaporate?

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Evaporation Water vapor stores latent heat Vapor pressure: pressure exerted by water vapor

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Vapor pressure

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Evaporation How quickly does water evaporate?

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Humidity Absolute humidity: ratio of water vapor to a given volume of air Specific humidity: ratio of water vapor to a given mass of air

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Humidity Relative humidity: ratio of water vapor to maximum water vapor capacity

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Dew point When air cools, water vapor capacity _____ and relative humidity _____

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Condensation Condensation: water vapor becomes liquid, releases latent heat

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Lapse rates Normal lapse rate: 3.5°F/1000 feet

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Adiabatic processes Air changes temperature by convection, not conduction

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Adiabatic processes If a rising parcel of air cools to its dewpoint, then ______ occurs

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Adiabatic processes

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Stability of air Buoyancy: tendency of an object to rise

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Stability of air

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Stability: normal lapse rate of surrounding air is less than DALR

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Stability of air Unstable air: normal lapse rate of surrounding air is greater than DALR

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Stability of air Conditionally unstable air: stable up to a point

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Stability of air

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