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Chapter 4 section 3: TYPES OF SOCIETIES

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1 Chapter 4 section 3: TYPES OF SOCIETIES

2 Some basics… GROUP: a set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and common identity. Some groups are small & informal Others are large & more formal. The largest, most complex groups that sociologists study are societies.

3 How to classify societies…
according to SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES – the way the society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members.

Pre-industrial societies may be subdivided according to their level of technology & their method of producing food, which is their main economic activity. There are 4 subdivisions within this category: HUNTING & GATHERING SOCIETIES PASTORAL SOCIETIES HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES

5 Cat. 1 - PREINDUSTRIAL Hunting/gathering: daily collection of wild plants & hunting of wild animals to satisfy the demand for food. Nomadic societies with small numbers of members. Statuses w/in the group are relatively equal Decisions are by consensus. The family = the major social unit.

6 Cat. 1 - PREINDUSTRIAL Pastoral: nomadic but more efficient
they rely on domesticated herd animals to meet their food needs. their food supply is more reliable so their population is larger. Food surpluses allow for the division of labor (craftworkers, tool producers, weapon producers, etc). Trade occurs – leading to inequality in wealth. Hereditary chieftainships are typically the form of gov’t.

7 Cat. 1: PREINDUSTRIAL Horticultural: Mainly eat fruits/veg. grown in gardens within the jungle. Villages are permanent or semi-permanent due to slash/burn clearing methods. Villages vary in size based on farm land. Food surpluses leads to a division of labor. Hereditary chiefs rule. more developed than pastoral societies.

8 Cat. 1: PREINDUSTRIAL Agricultural: Animals contribute their labor higher yields. these communities may be very large. Specialization of labor may lead to the development of cities for trade. Typically ruled by a hereditary monarch Armies emerge for protection transportation & economic systems for trade; BARTER (the exchange of a good or service) facilitates trade. Status differences between landowners & peasants show wealth accumulation. What can we learn from preindustrial societies?

Emphasis shifts from food production to production of manufactured goods. Mechanization occurs with new technology. Population increases the economic system changes as the need for farmers decreases. Factories emerge in cities leading to urbanization. Workers look for manufacturing work and production increases. Education occurs outside the family (formally). Social position results from competition (social statuses are ascribed). Basics of bartering bartering application

Postindustrial societies go beyond the level of development in industrial societies. Economy is involved in providing information & services. In the US about 73% of the labor force is involved in those activities; 25% in manufacturing or production jobs & 2% in agriculture. The Standard of living is very high. Strong emphasis is placed on education, rights of individuals & personal fulfillment These societies are well suited for democracy.

Sociologists compared preindustrial & industrial societies using the concepts of MECHANICAL and ORGANIC solidarity (Durkheim = functionalist) MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY: this is what holds preindustrial societies together; by sharing the same values & tasks they become united. ORGANIC SOLIDARITY: holds Industrial & PI societies together. Its based on the impersonal social relationships that arise with job specialization…people can no longer provide for all of their own needs & so become dependent on others for survival.

German Sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies distinguished 2 ideal types of societies based on the structure of social relationships and the degree of shared values among societal members. GEMEINSCHAFT and GESELLSCHAFT

13 GEMEINSCHAFT = community.
Members know each other & relationships are close. Activities center on family & community. There is a strong sense of solidarity. (EX: PI societies; rural villages)

14 GESELLSCHAFT = society.
Social relationships based on need rather than emotion. Relationships are impersonal & often temporary. Individual goals more important than group goals. (EX: urban societies like the US).

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