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Social Structure Roles & statuses, interactions, types of societies, groups within society.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Structure Roles & statuses, interactions, types of societies, groups within society."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Structure Roles & statuses, interactions, types of societies, groups within society

2 Types of Societies What is the feature sociologists use to classify societies? What are the 3 broad categories? Terms to know: subsistence strategies, preindustrial society, hunting & gathering society, pastoral society, division of labor, horticultural society, agricultural society, industrial society, urbanization, postindustrial society, Gemeinschaft, Gesellschaft

3 Preindustrial *Food production = main economic activity 4 subdivisions
Hunting & gathering – *move around in search of food (fewer permanent artifacts, small group size) Pastoral – *domesticate animals to meet food needs (larger populations, more complex division of labor: other jobs, more than just meeting food needs) Horticultural – *keeping gardens/fields instead of gathering wild plants for food. (similar to pastoral – some migrating, but more stable than pastoral, more complex division of labor) Agricultural – *develop more advanced technology to cultivate crops. (higher surplus, larger society; specialization – even more than pastoral & horticultural)

4 Industrial Postindustrial *Production of manufactured goods
Use of machines vastly increases amount produced & speed! Can support much larger population size People move to cities for work instead of doing it at home (urbanization) Postindustrial *Production of information & services Standard of living goes up; strong emphasis on science & technology

5 Durkheim said we have generally shifted from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft
Gemeinschaft = “community”; most people know each other, close relationships, group solidarity Gesellschaft = “society”; relationships based on need, not emotion; impersonal; individualistic

6 Social Structure Status – defined position in a group or society
Each person has several statuses, each with roles Ascribed status – assigned to you (ex: teenager, boy) Achieved status – acquired through your efforts & abilities (ex: basketball champion) Master status – the one that does the most to define who you are; above all the others Can change over the course of your life (student spouse  parent  career title grandparent) Role – the behavior expected of someone in a particular status

7 Role strain – difficulty meeting the expectations of a particular status (ex: you struggle with the all the homework you need to do for your status as “student”) Role conflict – fulfilling the role of one status interferes with fulfilling the role of another (ex: you need to be at work from 4-10 to fulfill your role as “employee” BUT this makes it difficult to do all the homework you need to do for your status as “student”)

8 Groups Within Society What makes a group? Consists of 2 or more people
Interaction among members Shared expectations Sense of common identity If you don’t have all 4, you’re not a group! (ex: aggregate, social category) Can vary greatly in size, organization, type & functions

9 Size Organization Dyad – a group with 2 members
Each member controls the group’s existence (if one leaves, no more group) Triad – a group with 3 members Small group – a group of 4 – 15 people Need to be able to interact face-to-face to be a “small group” Any more than 15, people tend to start making subgroups Organization Formal (set structure, goals & protocol) vs. informal (loose structure, rules are folkways, not laws)

10 Type Primary group – direct, personal interactions over longer period of time (ex: family) Secondary group – impersonal, temporary interactions; more casual; less concerned with the “whole” person (ex: boss & employee) Your best friend cares about your problems with your boyfriend – your boss probably doesn’t CAN exist together (i.e. a co-worker who becomes a friend) Reference group – people with whom a person identifies & shares values these are people you look to for attitudes, roles & norms Don’t necessarily need to belong to that group to use it as a reference

11 Functions E-community – people who interact regularly on the internet
New type of group; similar interactions to face-to-face groups – discuss issues, share stories, give advice, play games, etc. Functions Define boundaries Select leaders (instrumental – get things done; and expressive – keep group together & boost morale) Set goals Make decisions Control group members’ behavior (nonconformity)

12 Formal Organizations Read Ch. 4 Section 5 (pg. 83, 86-87)
Define: formal organization, bureaucracy, voluntary association What are Weber’s 5 characteristics of bureaucracy? How might primary group relationships still exist within a formal organization? (use the electric company example to explain!) Give 2 benefits of bureaucracies (according to Weber); give 3 possible weaknesses

13 Formal organization Bureaucracy Voluntary organization 5 characteristics of bureaucracy Primary groups can exist within a formal organization….

14 Functions of Bureaucracies
Dysfunctions of Bureaucracies

15 Social Interaction Exchange – interaction done to get something in return Based on idea of reciprocity – if you do something for someone, they owe you Exchange theory – people are generally motivated by reward (weigh cost/benefit ). Sound familiar? Competition – people or groups oppose each other to try to achieve the same goal Emphasis on reaching the goal Common method in schools, businesses Can be motivating, can lead to conflict

16 Conflict – deliberate attempt to control, harm, or oppose
Emphasis on defeating the opponent Simmel said there are 4 major sources: War, legal disputes, disagreements within groups, & ideological disputes Again, can be damaging; but can strengthen in-group relations by focusing on an out-group Cooperation – people or groups work together to accomplish a common goal

17 Accommodation – give & take (not full cooperation)
Ex: motel 4 forms: Compromise Truce Mediation Arbitration Pg. 72 #3

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