Chapter Outline Conformity and Deviance Sociological Theories About Deviance Crime Mental Illness The Sociology of Law The Criminal Justice System
Social Control Takes place at three levels: 1. Self-control, we police ourselves. 2. Informal controls, our friends reward conformity and punish nonconformity. 3. Formal controls, the state or authorities discourage nonconformity.
Deviance Behavior of which others disapprove to the extent that they believe something significant ought to be done about it. It is not the act that is important but the audience. The same act may be deviant in front of one audience but not another, deviant in one place but not another.
Structural-functional Theories Durkheim When the parts of a society (institutions) are not working together as they should, people experience anomie. Anomie is a major cause of suicide and other social ills.
Differential Association Theory Deviance is learned through 2 mechanisms: 1. Interacting with others who hold deviant norms. 2. Adopt those norms because we get approval from people in that deviant subculture.
Merton’s Types of Deviance Modes of Adaptation Cultural Goals Institutional Means InnovationAcceptedRejected RitualismRejectedAccepted RetreatismRejected Rebellion Rejected/ replaced
Three Kinds of Rewards 1. Instrumental rewards (economic). 2. Family ties. 3. Self-esteem.
Labeling Theory Concerned with processes by which labels become attached to people and behaviors. Those with power assign labels that stick. Labeling various kinds of deviance, with the “sick” label is called the medicalization of deviance.
Conflict Theory Class interests dictate who shall be defined as deviant and how severely they shall be punished. Economic conditions of the lower classes lead to behavior defined as criminal.
Index Crimes Murder and manslaughter Rape Robbery Assault Burglary Larceny-theft Auto theft.
Victimless Crimes Do not involve a clearly defined victim. Involve illegal supply and demand. Examples: drug abuse, prostitution, and illegal drinking.
White Collar Crimes Crime committed by respectable people of high status in the course of their occupation. Often unreported and difficult to detect. Economic, environmental, and social costs are far greater than all street crime combined.
Correlates of Crime Age. Young adults constitute the great majority of those arrested for street crime, both in this country and around the world. Sex. Young males are most often arrested for virtually every category of crime.
Correlates of Crime Social class. Poverty and weak access to jobs and education are certainly related to crime rates. Race. African-Americans are disproportionately represented in lineups, in prisons, and on death row.
Mental Illness Most kinds of mental disorder are more prevalent among the lower classes. Women are more often treated for depression and anxiety disorders while men seem more likely to fall victim to substance abuse.
Sociology of Law Law has three major functions: Formal sanctions to encourage conformity. Assistance in settling disputes. Sanctioning of social change.
Punishment Rationales Retribution Reformation Specific deterrence General deterrence Prevention
Number of People in Prison During 2002 (per 100,000 Population)
Strategies for Reducing Crime 1. Reduce social inequality and poverty. 2. Replace low-wage jobs with jobs that pay a living wage. 3. Prevent child abuse and neglect. 4. Increase the social and economic stability of communities. 5. Improve education in all communities.