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Social Control and Deviance

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Presentation on theme: "Social Control and Deviance"— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Control and Deviance
Rewards Punishment

2 Social Control

3 Social Control Each society has norms that help society run smoothly
Norms enforced by: 1) Internalization Process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality You believe a norm is good and appropriate so you abide by norm Follow norm because it is right thing to do not because fear of punishment 2) Sanctions Rewards or punishments used to enforce conformity to norms

4 Positive vs. Negative Sanctions
Positive Sanctions Negative Sanctions actions that rewards a particular behavior Ex: star for turning in homework Ex: raise to good employees punishment or the threat of punishment used to enforce conformity Ex: speeding ticket The more important the norm to social stability the harsher the negative sanction Sanctions can range from frowns to imprisonment

5 Formal vs. Informal Sanctions
Spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or group Positive Example: compliments, smiles, standing ovation Negative Example: insults, gossip, ostracism Effective amongst teenagers who consider group acceptance important Reward or punishment given by a formal organization or regulatory agency Ex: low grades, suspension Ex: fired from job Positive formal sanctions: diploma, pay raise, medals

6 Do you line jump? Why or why not?

7 Social Control Enforcing norms through internal or external means
Agents of external enforcement – authority figures, police, courts, family, peer group, public opinion Individuals must follow certain rules in order for society to function smoothly Society needs effective system of social control to survive

8 Deviance

9 Nature of Deviance Deviance – behavior that violates significant norms
Deviance varies from society to society Ex: divorce illegal in the Philippines

10 Labeling Deviants 2 components:
1) must be detected committing deviant act 2) person must be stigmatized by society Stigma = form of social control because it is a mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from rest of society Repeated offenses may lead to receiving the label of deviant Ex: speeding ticket doesn’t get you a label of deviant but repeated violations and reckless behavior may Someone who commits one act that has series negative consequences may also be labeled a deviant Ex: murder, sexual assault

11 Social Functions of Deviance
Emile Durkheim, The Rules of Sociological Method It provides jobs in law enforcement Defines boundaries of acceptable behavior Ex: punishment of another is a warning of consequences for violation Draws line between conforming members and ‘outsiders’ reinforces shared values Those unhappy with social conditions can relieve tension without disrupting society Ex: occupy Wallstreet protester Prompt social change by identifying problems – if large numbers violate norm them indication of needed change Ex: Egypt, Libya

12 Explaining Deviance: Functionalist
Deviance natural part of society that serves some positive functions Believe in Strain Theory – views deviance as natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structure of society Values in society may not meet the means people have to achieve a value Ex: US we value economic achievement but what if you don’t have access to this? Creates an anomie Anomie – situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear and no longer applicable Leaves unclear guidelines for behavior causing confusion for individual and society

13 Merton’s Strain Theory of Deviance
People respond to goals and means of achieving them 5 ways (Modes of Adaptation) 1) Conformity- accepts goals and pursues them in approved ways – most common – only non-deviant response 2) Innovation – accepts goals but disapproves of ways to achieve it Ex: drug dealers – want economic success but does not go about it in socially acceptable way 3) Ritualism – abandon goals but follows society’s norms 4) Retreatism – reject both goals and methods of achieving them Ex: addicts, beggars, hermits – drop out of society 5) Rebellion – challenges goals and substitutes new ones Ex: Revolutionary leaders

14 Explaining Deviance: Conflict Perspective
Believe that competition and social inequality lead to deviance People with power commit deviant acts to stay in power People without power commit deviant acts to gain power Ruling class labels any act that threatens their power as deviant

15 Explaining Deviance: Interactionist Perspective
Interaction with others influences deviance 3 theories to explain deviance: 1) Control Theory 2) Cultural Transmission Theory 3) Labeling/Differential

16 Control Theory Interested in why people conform
Believe social ties determine conformity People who are integrated into community will conform and those who have weak ties will likely commit deviant acts How you develop bond to community – 1) attachments 2) belief in society’s moral code 3) commitment to society’s values and goals 4) fully involved in non-deviant activity New study showed conformity the result of strong self-control Socialization helps determine one’s level of self-control Ex: parents who punish bad behavior and reward good will have more self-control Those that lack these more likely to commit deviant act

17 Cultural Transmission
Believes Deviance is a behavior learned through interaction with others Differential association – if a majority of a person’s interactions are with deviant individuals then the person is likely to be deviant also

18 Labeling Theory Focuses on how individuals become identified as deviant All individuals commit deviant acts but not all are labeled deviant 2 types of Deviance: Primary deviance – occasional violation of norms Society does not view them as deviant Secondary deviance – refers to deviance as a lifestyle and results in them being labeled as deviant VS.

19 Crime

20 Who Commits a Crime? Crime – any act that is labeled by those in authority and is prohibited by law Age – 53% 28.6% 35-54 15.5% under 18 Race 69.7% white 28% African American 2.4% other Sex 76.3% male 23.7% female

21 Types of Crimes Violent Crime Property Crime Victimless Crime
Murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault Property Crime Burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, arson Victimless Crime Prostitution, illegal gambling, illegal drug use White-collar Crime Offenses committed by people of high social status during professional lives Fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement, insider trading Organized Crime Crime syndicate – large-scale organization of professional criminals that controls some vice or legitimate business through violence

22 Corrections Sanctions used to punish criminals
1) Retribution – acceptable revenge 2) Deterrence – discourage offenders from committing future crimes 3) Rehabilitation – reform criminals 4) Social Protections – protect society from additional crimes

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