Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2002 Year 2 - Chapter 5/Cisco 3 - Module 5 Routing Protocols: IGRP By Carl Marandola."— Presentation transcript:
Copyright 2002 Year 2 - Chapter 5/Cisco 3 - Module 5 Routing Protocols: IGRP By Carl Marandola
Copyright 2002 Objectives Describe the routing functions of the network layer and how these functions relate to path determination in a router Describe routed and routing protocols Describe interior and exterior protocols Describe routing protocol characteristics and configuration Describe IGRP features, operation, and configuration tasks
Copyright 2002 Network Layer Basics Network Layer Path Determination Routing Tables The Network Layer Communication Path Addressing: The Network and the Host
Copyright 2002 The Goals of Routing Protocols The Optimal (Best) Route Simplicity and Efficiency Robustness Rapid Convergence Flexibility
Copyright 2002 Understanding IGRP Operation Interior, System, and Exterior IGRP Routes Creating the IGRP Routing Process Enhancing IGRP Stability IGRP Metric Information IGRP Updates Maximum Hop Count
Copyright 2002 IGRP Key Information Cisco proprietary protocol –Requires all Cisco devices. Distance-vector routing protocol Periodic updates every 90 seconds –Full route table exchanged. –Declares a route inaccessible after three missed update periods (270 seconds). –Route removed after seven update periods (630 seconds). Metric based on bandwidth and delay by default –Optional: Can include reliability, load, and MTU. Large network diameter – 100 hops (routers) –Optional: Up to 255 possible.
Copyright 2002 Interior and Exterior Routes Internet ISP Exterior route Interior routes An AS is a collection of networks under common administration sharing a common routing strategy. Typically this would be a company, but a large company could create multiple ASs. Typically ISPs and clients do not share routing information or protocols. Exterior routes are typically a default route to the ISP and static route(s) to the AS. All routers running IGRP or Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) and using the same AS number will exchange route information.
Copyright 2002 Configuring IGRP Example Router(config)#router igrp 100 Router(config-router)#network 220.127.116.11 Router(config-router)#network 18.104.22.168 Router(config-router)#network 22.214.171.124 If you want the bandwidth on a serial link to be interpreted by IGRP as anything but 1.54 Mbps (T1 – default), you must use the optional bandwidth command. This command gives IGRP a value to use but does not alter the actual bandwidth. The following example sets the bandwidth to 256 Kbps: Router(config)#int s0 Router(config-if)#ip address 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#bandwidth 256 Router(config-if)#no shutdown
Copyright 2002 The show ip route Command Router#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate U - per-user static route, o - ODR Gateway of last resort is not set C 188.8.131.52/24 is directly connected, Serial1 I 184.108.40.206/24 [100/8576] via 220.127.116.11, 00:01:06, Serial1 I 18.104.22.168/24 [100/10476] via 22.214.171.124, 00:01:06, Serial1 C 126.96.36.199/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 MetricAdministrative DistanceSourceInterface Received On
Copyright 2002 The show ip protocols Command Router#show ip protocols Routing Protocol is "igrp 100" Sending updates every 90 seconds, next due in 69 seconds Invalid after 270 seconds, hold down 280, flushed after 630 Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set Default networks flagged in outgoing updates Default networks accepted from incoming updates IGRP metric weight K1=1, K2=0, K3=1, K4=0, K5=0 IGRP maximum hopcount 100 IGRP maximum metric variance 1 Redistributing: igrp 100 Routing for Networks: 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 Routing Information Sources: Gateway Distance Last Update Distance: (default is 100) Administrative Distance
Copyright 2002 The debug igrp events Command Router#debug ip igrp events IGRP event debugging is on Router# IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Ethernet0 (18.104.22.168) IGRP: Update contains 0 interior, 3 system, and 0 exterior routes. IGRP: Total routes in update: 3 IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial1 (22.214.171.124) IGRP: Update contains 0 interior, 1 system, and 0 exterior routes. IGRP: Total routes in update: 1 IGRP: received update from invalid source 126.96.36.199 on Ethernet0 IGRP: received update from 188.8.131.52 on Serial1 IGRP: Update contains 0 interior, 2 system, and 0 exterior routes. IGRP: Total routes in update: 2 Router#undebug all IGRP event debugging is off
Copyright 2002 The debug igrp transactions Command Router#debug ip igrp transactions IGRP protocol debugging is on Router# IGRP: received update from invalid source 184.108.40.206 on Ethernet0 IGRP: received update from 220.127.116.11 on Serial1 network 18.104.22.168, metric 8576 (neighbor 1100) network 22.214.171.124, metric 10476 (neighbor 8476) IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Ethernet0 (126.96.36.199) network 188.8.131.52, metric=8476 network 184.108.40.206, metric=8576 network 220.127.116.11, metric=10476 IGRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial1 (18.104.22.168) network 22.214.171.124, metric=1100 Router#undebug all IGRP event debugging is off
Copyright 2002 IGRP Solutions for Routing Loops IGRP features to enhance stability include : –Hold-down timers If Router 1 tells Router 2 that Network A is unavailable and Router 2 sets a hold-down timer, it will not accept information about Network A from other routers until the timer expires. –Split horizon Router 2 will not send routes to Router 1 that it learned about from Router 1 (such as Network A). –Poison reverse updates Typically used with hold-down timers. If Network A goes down and Router 1 drops it from its routing updates, it will take 3 cycles (270 seconds) for Router 2 to suspect a problem and 7 cycles (630 seconds) to drop the route. Alternative: Router 1 sends Router 2 an update on Network A with the hop count set to 101 – infinity (unreachable).