Presentation on theme: "Dynamic Routing Protocols Function(s) of Dynamic Routing Protocols: – Dynamically share information between routers (Discover remote networks). – Automatically."— Presentation transcript:
Dynamic Routing Protocols Function(s) of Dynamic Routing Protocols: – Dynamically share information between routers (Discover remote networks). – Automatically update routing table when topology changes (Maintaining up-to-date routing information). – Determine best path to a destination networks. – Ability to find a new best path if the current path is no longer available
Dynamic Routing Protocols Components of a routing protocol – Algorithm In the case of a routing protocol algorithms are used for facilitating routing information and best path determination – Routing protocol messages These are messages for discovering neighbors and exchange of routing information
Classifying Routing Protocols Dynamic routing protocols are grouped according to characteristics. Examples include: – RIP – IGRP – EIGRP – OSPF – IS-IS – BGP Autonomous System is a group of routers under the control of a single authority.
Classifying Routing Protocols Interior Gateway Routing Protocols (IGP) – Used for routing inside an autonomous system & used to route within the individual networks themselves – Examples: RIP, EIGRP, OSPF Exterior Routing Protocols (EGP) – Used for routing between autonomous systems – Example: BGPv4
Classifying Routing Protocols Distance Vector & Link State Routing Protocols Distance vector – Routes are advertised as vectors of distance & direction – Incomplete view of network topology – Generally, periodic updates Link state – Complete view of network topology is created – Updates are not periodic
Distance Vector Routing Protocols Distance Vector Technology - the Meaning of Distance Vector – A router using distance vector routing protocols knows 2 things: Distance to final destination Vector, or direction, traffic should be directed
8 Distance Vector Routing Protocols : - each router detects its direct connected networks and form its initial routing table - routers pass periodic copies of routing table to neighbor routers and learn the best paths to all networks ( the paths with the least metric ) and form the final routing table (convergence) - after convergence periodic updates (full routing table) are sent to indicate any change in the topology.
Distance Vector Routing Protocols Characteristics of Distance Vector routing protocols: – Periodic updates – Neighbors – Broadcast updates – Entire routing table is included with routing update
Distance Vector Routing Protocols Routing Protocol Algorithm: –Defined as a procedure for accomplishing a certain task
Network Discovery Router initial start up (Cold Starts) – Initial network discovery Directly connected networks are initially placed in routing table
Network Discovery Initial Exchange of Routing Information Routers will exchange routing information Routing updates received from other routers Router checks update for new information – If there is new information: Metric is updated New information is stored in routing table
Network Discovery Exchange of Routing Information – Router convergence is reached when All routing tables in the network contain the same network information – Routers continue to exchange routing information If no new information is found then Convergence is reached
Routing loops Count to infinity problem Count to infinity is a condition that exists when inaccurate routing updates increase the metric value to "infinity" for a network that is no longer reachable. The animation shows what happens to the routing tables when all three routers continue to send inaccurate updates to each other.
Routing loops Solution: Setting a maximum To eventually stop the incrementing of the metric, "infinity" is defined by setting a maximum metric value. For example, RIP defines infinity as 16 hops - an "unreachable" metric. Once the routers "count to infinity," they mark the route as unreachable.
Routing loops Route Poisoning, Poison Reverse : Route poisoning is used to mark the route as unreachable in a routing update that is sent to other routers. Unreachable is interpreted as a metric that is set to the maximum. For RIP, a poisoned route has a metric of 16.
Routing loops - When network 10.0.0.0 fails, router A will mark its metric by 16 (a max. hop count value to avoid counting to infinity) and send its routing table to B after the periodic interval. - Before B sends its periodic update to C, router C sent its routing table to B containing a path to 10.0.0.0 with a better metric so B think that 10.0.0.0 can be reached by C while C depends on B for that so loop occurs
Routing loops Solutions 1- Split Horizon : - Route learned from an interface can not be sent back on the same interface. - Split horizon with poison reverse: the split horizon rule is violated in case of poison reverse only.
Routing loops Solutions 2- Hold-down Timers : Router that informed with a failed route don’t accept any update about it for a time equal to the hold down timer so by the end of the timer all routers would know that route failed ( it is useful in flapping networks ). - hold finish if : The hold-down timer expires. Another update is received with a better metric.
Routing loops Solutions 3- Triggered Updates : Instead of sending updates after a time interval, router sends the update as soon as a route fails or any change occurs so other routers immediately modify their routing tables ( this is the most used solution ).
Routing loops Solutions IP & TTL – Purpose of the TTL field The TTL field is found in an IP header and is used to prevent packets from endlessly traveling on a network How the TTL field works – TTL field contains a numeric value The numeric value is decreased by one by every router on the route to the destination If numeric value reaches 0 then Packet is discarded
RIPv1 RIP Characteristics – A classful, Distance Vector (DV) routing protocol – Metric = hop count – Routes with a hop count > 15 are unreachable – Updates are broadcast every 30 seconds Distance Vector Routing Protocols
RIPv1 RIP Message Format RIP header - divided into 3 fields – Command field – Version field – Must be zero Route Entry - composed of 3 fields – Address family identifier – IP address – Metric
RIPv1 RIP Operation – RIP uses 2 message types: Request message – This is sent out on startup by each RIP enabled interface – Requests all RIP enabled neighbors to send routing table Response message – Message sent to requesting router containing routing table
RIPv2 – Difference between RIPv1 & RIPv2 RIPv1 – A classful distance vector routing protocol – Does not support discontiguous subnets – Does not support VLSM – Does not send subnet mask in routing update – Routing updates are broadcast RIPv2 – A classless distance vector routing protocol that is an enhancement of RIPv1’s features – Next hop address is included in updates – Routing updates are multicast – The use of authentication is an option
Similarities between RIPv1 & RIPv2 – Use of timers to prevent routing loops – Use of split horizon or split horizon with poison reverse – Use of triggered updates – Maximum hop count of 15
Comparing RIPv1 & RIPv2 Message Formats – RIPv2 Message format is similar to RIPv1 but has 2 extensions 1st extension is the subnet mask field 2nd extension is the addition of next hop address
Routing Protocol Distance Vector Classless Routing Protocol Uses Hold- Down Timers Use of Split Horizon or Split Horizon w/ Poison Reverse Max Hop count = 15 Auto Summary Support CIDR Supports VLSM Uses Authen - tication RIPv1YesNoYes No RIPv2Yes
RIP 29 - distance vector routing protocol - Administrative Distance = 120 - metric is hop count, metric 16 means unreachable - full routing tables are flooded in the network till convergence occurs (use Bellman Ford algorithm) - After convergence, periodic updates are sent every 30 seconds, hold down timer = 180 sec - at change, triggered update is sent - support load balancing if many paths to the same network exist with an equal metric (maximum is six paths, default = 4) - classful
IGRP 30 - Distance vector routing protocol - Cisco proprietary - Administrative Distance is 100 - Metric is composite (bandwidth, delay by default) while (load, reliability, MTU) can be used, maximum metric is 255 - Full routing tables are flooded in the network till convergence occurs (use Bellman Ford algorithm) - After convergence, periodic updates are sent every 90 seconds, hold down timer = 270 sec - At change, triggered update is sent - support load balancing if many paths to the same network exist even if they have unequal metric (maximum is six paths, default = 4) - Classful