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Routing and Routing Protocols

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1 Routing and Routing Protocols
Routers and Routing Protocols Routing and Routing Protocols CCNA 2 v3 – Module 6 NESCOT CATC CCNA2 v3 Module 6 DC

2 Introducing Routing In order to forward packets correctly, routers must learn the direction to remote networks. Two types of routing: Dynamic routing - information is learned from other routers, and routing protocols adjust routes automatically. Static routing - network administrator configures information about remote networks manually. They are used to reduce overhead and for security. Because of the extra administrative requirements, static routing does not have the scalability of dynamic routing. In most networks static routes are often used in conjunction with a dynamic routing protocol. NESCOT CATC

3 Routing and Routed Protocols
Routing Protocols allow the routers to communicate with other routers to update and maintain tables. Examples: RIP, IGRP, EIGRP and OSPF Routed Protocols provide enough information in their network layer address to allow packets to be forwarded from one host to another host based on the addressing scheme. Examples: IP, IPX, AppleTalk NESCOT CATC

4 Routing Protocols – Path Determination
Routing consists of two basic mechanisms: Path Determination Router uses the routing table to determine the best path. Switching (forwarding) Accept a packet on one interface and forward it to a second interface Routing protocols create and maintain routing tables: Simplified routing table. The Default router entry sends packets for any other destinations out S1. NESCOT CATC

5 Static routes to next hop addresses have administrative distance of 1.
Static routes between networks are manually configured by an administrator. Static routes are added with the following command: Router(config)# ip route E0 Static routes out interfaces have an administrative distance of 0. Network Address Subnet Mask Gateway This command sets a default route on a router: Router(config)# ip route Static routes to next hop addresses have administrative distance of 1. You can specify a non-default administrative distance for a static route: Router(config)# ip route Do the 2 e-Labs of 6.1.2 NESCOT CATC

6 Configuring Static Routes
Step 1 Determine all desired prefixes, masks, and addresses. The address can be either a local interface or a next hop address that leads to the desired destination. Step 2 Enter global configuration mode. Step 3 Type the ip route command with a prefix and mask followed by the corresponding address from Step 1. The administrative distance is optional. Step 4 Repeat Step 3 for all the destination networks that were defined in Step 1. Step 5 Exit global configuration mode. NESCOT CATC

7 Configuring Static Routes: An Example
Do e-Lab Do e-Lab or or NESCOT CATC

8 Configuring Default Route Forwarding
Default routes are used to route packets with destinations that do not match any of the other routes in the routing table. NESCOT CATC

9 Dynamic Routing – Distance Vector and Link-State
The success of dynamic routing depends on two basic router functions: Maintenance of a routing table Timely distribution of knowledge, in the form of routing updates, to other routers. Dynamic routing relies on the routing protocol. Routing Protocols can be Distant Vector or Link-State. Hybrid protocols (like EIGRP) contain some elements of both. Different routing protocols use different metrics to determine the best route to a network. Administrative Distances are used to rate the trustworthiness of the various routing protocols. NESCOT CATC

10 Distance Vector Routing Protocols
The distance-vector routing algorithm passes complete routing tables to neighbor routers. The neighbor routers combine the received routing table with their own routing tables. RIP is a distance vector routing protocol: Uses hop count as its metric Each router the packet goes through is 1 hop 2 3 1 A B Configuration Example: 1 2 Router(config)# router rip Router(config-router)# network NESCOT CATC

11 Link State Routing Protocols
Link-state routing algorithms (Shortest Path First algorithms), maintain a complex database of topology information. Link-state routing uses: Link-state advertisements (LSAs) A topological database The SPF algorithm, and the resulting SPF tree A routing table of paths and ports to each network Link-state routing requires more memory and processing power than distance vector, and bandwidth requirements are often higher as well. OSPF is the most commonly used Link-State Protocol. NESCOT CATC

12 Distance Vector or Link State?
DV Also known as Bellman-Ford algorithms Flood routing information to all routers Requests routing information from directly connected neighbors Complete view of the internetwork topology Decisions based upon information provided by neighbors   Use fewer system resources When a network link changes state LSA are flooded through network Less errors, but they use more system resources Calculate the shortest path to all known sites on the network Small update packets contain only changes Slower convergence OSPF and IS-IS Do not scale well to larger systems. Because they converge more quickly less prone to routing loops Event-triggered updates, so convergence is fast Based on finding the number of hops and direction to a link Passes copies of complete routing table on a periodic basis Each router simply inform its neighbors of its routing table RIP and IGRP more reliable, easier to debug, and less bandwidth-intensive LS DV LS DV DV LS LS LS LS DV LS DV LS LS DV DV DV DV NESCOT CATC LS

13 Routing Protocols RIP IGRP EIGRP OSPF BGP Protocol Features
Distance vector, hop count metric, maximum 15 hops, broadcasts updates every 30 secs. Cisco proprietary distance vector, bandwidth / load / delay / reliability composite metric, broadcast updates every 90 secs. Cisco proprietary, enhanced distance vector (hybrid), load balancing, uses DUAL to calculate shortest path. Routing updates are triggered by topology changes. Link-state, open standard, Uses SPF algorithm. Routing updates are sent as topology changes occur. Distance vector exterior routing protocol, used between ISPs, used to route traffic between ASs. RIP IGRP EIGRP OSPF BGP NESCOT CATC

14 Autonomous Systems AS is a collection of networks under a common administration and sharing a common routing strategy. ARIN, ISP, or an administrator assigns the 16 bit AS number. IGRP, EIGRP and BGP require assignment of a unique AS number. ASs divide the global internetwork into smaller, more manageable networks. AS 10 AS 20 Each AS has its own set of rules and policies. The AS number uniquely distinguish it from other ASs around the world. NESCOT CATC

15 Interior Gateway Protocols different organizations
EGP and IGP _______________________ are designed for use in networks whose parts are under the control of a single organization. Exterior routing protocol is designed for use between different networks that are under the control of ___________________. ______ are typically used between ISPs or between a company and an ISP. EGPs require the following: A list of _________________ with which to exchange updates. A list of _________ to advertise as directly reachable. The ____________________ number of the local router. An exterior routing protocol must isolate ____. Interior Gateway Protocols different organizations EGP neighbor routers networks autonomous system ASs IGP EGP NESCOT CATC

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